A Uniform Planar Array (UPA) is a specific type of antenna array characterized by a two-dimensional arrangement of antenna elements with regular and uniform spacing in both the horizontal and vertical dimensions. UPAs are widely used in wireless communication systems, radar applications, and other scenarios where beamforming, directional sensitivity, and control of the radiation pattern are essential.

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Shaping mmWave Wireless Channel via Multi Beam Design using Reconfigurable Intelligent Surfaces

Shaping mmWave Wireless Channel via Multi Beam Design using Reconfigurable Intelligent Surfaces Millimeter wave (mmWave) communications is considered as a key enabler towards the realization of next generation wireless networks, due to the abundance of available spectrum at mmWave frequencies. However, mmWave suffers from high free space path loss and poor scattering resulting in mostly line of sight (LoS) channels which result in a lack of coverage. Reconfigurable intelligent surfaces (RIS), as a new paradigm, have the potential to fill the coverage holes by shaping the wireless channel. In this paper, we propose a novel approach for designing RIS with elements arranged in a uniform planar array (UPA) structure. In what we refer to as multi beamforming, We propose and design RIS such that the reflected beam comprises multiple disjoint lobes. Moreover, the beams have optimized gain within the desired angular coverage with fairly sharp edges avoiding power leakage to other regions. We provide a closed form low complexity solution for the multi beamforming design. We confirm our theoretical results by numerical analysis.