Optimized Constellation refers to a specific arrangement or configuration of elements, often in the context of satellite systems, where satellites or other elements are positioned in space in a way that maximizes certain performance criteria. The optimization process often involves sophisticated mathematical modeling, simulations, and analysis to find the most efficient arrangement of satellites or elements to meet the specific objectives of the satellite system. These objectives can vary based on the intended application, whether it’s communication, Earth observation, navigation, or other purposes.


Spectrally-Efficient 200G Probabilistically-Shaped 16QAM over 9000km Straight Line Transmission with Flexible Multiplexing Scheme

Flexible wavelength-multiplexing technique in backbone submarine networks has been deployed to accommodate the trend of variable-rate modulation formats. In this paper, we propose a new design of flexible-rate transponders in the scenario of flexible multiplexing scheme to achieve near-Shannon performance. Probabilistic-shaped (PS) M-QAM is capable of adjusting the bit rate at very finer granularity by adapting the entropy of the distribution matcher. Instead of delivering variable bit rates at the fixed baud rate, various baud rates of 200Gb/s PS-16QAM is demonstrated to fit into the flexible grid multiple 3.125GHz bandwidth. This flexible baud rate saves the limited optical bandwidth assigned by the flexible multiplexing scheme to improve bandwidth utilization. The 200G PS-16QAM signals are experimentally demonstrated over 9000km straight-line testbed to achieve 3.05b/s/Hz~5.33 b/s/Hz spectral efficiency (SE) with up to 4dB Q margin. In addition, the high baud rate signals are used for lower SE while low baud rate signals are targeting at high SE transmission to reduce the implementation penalty.

Spectrally Efficient Submarine Transmission with Flexible WME

By adjusting single shaping factor in the distribution matcher, probabilistic-shaped M-QAM is reviewed to provide both flex-rate and near-Shannon performance at the given flex-grid bandwidth and filling ratio.

Design and Comparison of Advanced Modulation Formats Based on Generalized Mutual Information

Generalized mutual information (GMI) has been comprehensively studied in multidimensional constellation and probabilistic-shaped (PS) constellation together with different forward error correction (FEC) coding schemes. The simulation results confirm that GMI is an efficient and accurate tool to compare their post-FEC performance. In particular for uniformly geometric-shaped constellation, the pre-FEC Q-factor is highly correlated with GMI though the correlation is reduced at lower FEC coding rate. Furthermore, GMI can be used to design optimized constellation together with generalized pairwise optimization algorithm to mitigate the GMI loss in non-Gray-mapped constellation. The GMI-optimized 32QAM (opt32) shows ~0.5 dB signal-to-noise ratio improvement between 3 and 4 b/s GMI in both simulated and experimental results. Optimized two-dimensional 8 QAM is also designed to show the consistent GMI improvement over multi-dimensional 8 QAM-equivalent formats. In simulations, PS-64 QAM outperforms opt32 when a long sequence block is used in the distribution matcher.