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Deep Supervision with Intermediate Concepts (IEEE)

Read Deep Supervision with Intermediate Concepts (IEEE). Recent data-driven approaches to scene interpretation predominantly pose inference as an end-to-end black-box mapping, commonly performed by a Convolutional Neural Network (CNN). However, decades of work on perceptual organization in both human and machine vision suggest that there are often intermediate representations that are intrinsic to an inference task, and which provide essential structure to improve generalization. In this work, we explore an approach for injecting prior domain structure into neural network training by supervising hidden layers of a CNN with intermediate concepts that normally are not observed in practice. We formulate a probabilistic framework which formalizes these notions and predicts improved generalization via this deep supervision method. One advantage of this approach is that we are able to train only from synthetic CAD renderings of cluttered scenes, where concept values can be extracted, but apply the results to real images. Our implementation achieves the state-of-the-art performance of 2D/3D keypoint localization and image classification on real image benchmarks including KITTI, PASCALVOC, PASCAL3D+, IKEA, and CIFAR100. We provide additional evidence that our approach outperforms alternative forms of supervision, such as multi-task networks.

A Parametric Top-View Representation of Complex Road Scenes

In this paper, we address the problem of inferring the layout of complex road scenes given a single camera as input. To achieve that, we first propose a novel parameterized model of road layouts in a top-view representation, which is not only intuitive for human visualization but also provides an interpretable interface for higher-level decision making. Moreover, the design of our top-view scene model allows for efficient sampling and thus generation of large-scale simulated data, which we leverage to train a deep neural network to infer our scene model’s parameters. Specifically, our proposed training procedure uses supervised domain-adaptation techniques to incorporate both simulated as well as manually annotated data. Finally, we design a Conditional Random Field (CRF) that enforces coherent predictions for a single frame and encourages temporal smoothness among video frames. Experiments on two public data sets show that: (1) Our parametric top-view model is representative enough to describe complex road scenes; (2) The proposed method outperforms baselines trained on manually-annotated or simulated data only, thus getting the best of both; (3) Our CRF is able to generate temporally smoothed while semantically meaningful results.

Learning Structure-And-Motion-Aware Rolling Shutter Correction

An exact method of correcting the rolling shutter (RS) effect requires recovering the underlying geometry, i.e. the scene structures and the camera motions between scanlines or between views. However, the multiple-view geometry for RS cameras is much more complicated than its global shutter (GS) counterpart, with various degeneracies. In this paper, we first make a theoretical contribution by showing that RS two-view geometry is degenerate in the case of pure translational camera motion. In view of the complex RS geometry, we then propose a Convolutional Neural Network (CNN)-based method which learns the underlying geometry (camera motion and scene structure) from just a single RS image and perform RS image correction. We call our method structure-and-motion-aware RS correction because it reasons about the concealed motions between the scanlines as well as the scene structure. Our method learns from a large-scale dataset synthesized in a geometrically meaningful way where the RS effect is generated in a manner consistent with the camera motion and scene structure. In extensive experiments, our method achieves superior performance compared to other state-of-the-art methods for single image RS correction and subsequent Structure from Motion (SfM) applications.

Hierarchical Metric Learning and Matching for 2D and 3D Geometric Correspondences

Interest point descriptors have fueled progress on almost every problem in computer vision. Recent advances in deep neural networks have enabled task-specific learned descriptors that outperform hand-crafted descriptors on many problems. We demonstrate that commonly used metric learning approaches do not optimally leverage the feature hierarchies learned in a Convolutional Neural Network (CNN), especially when applied to the task of geometric feature matching. While a metric loss applied to the deepest layer of a CNN, is often expected to yield ideal features irrespective of the task, in fact the growing receptive field as well as striding effects cause shallower features to be better at high precision matching tasks. We leverage this insight together with explicit supervision at multiple levels of the feature hierarchy for better regularization, to learn more effective descriptors in the context of geometric matching tasks. Further, we propose to use activation maps at different layers of a CNN, as an effective and principled replacement for the multi-resolution image pyramids often used for matching tasks. We propose concrete CNN architectures employing these ideas and evaluate them on multiple datasets for 2D and 3D geometric matching as well as optical flow, demonstrating state-of-the-art results and generalization across datasets.

Learning to Look around Objects for Top-View Representations of Outdoor Scenes

Given a single RGB image of a complex outdoor road scene in the perspective view, we address the novel problem of estimating an occlusion-reasoned semantic scene layout in the top-view. This challenging problem not only requires an accurate understanding of both the 3D geometry and the semantics of the visible scene, but also of occluded areas. We propose a convolutional neural network that learns to predict occluded portions of the scene layout by looking around foreground objects like cars or pedestrians. But instead of hallucinating RGB values, we show that directly predicting the semantics and depths in the occluded areas enables a better transformation into the top-view. We further show that this initial top-view representation can be significantly enhanced by learning priors and rules about typical road layouts from simulated or, if available, map data. Crucially, training our model does not require costly or subjective human annotations for occluded areas or the top-view, but rather uses readily available annotations for standard semantic segmentation in the perspective view. We extensively evaluate and analyze our approach on the KITTI and Cityscapes data sets.