At the Speed of Sound: Efficient Audio Scene Classification Efficient audio scene classification is essential for smart sensing platforms such as robots, medical monitoring, surveillance, or autonomous vehicles. We propose a retrieval-based scene classification architecture that combines recurrent neural networks and attention to compute embeddings for short audio segments. We train our framework using a custom audio loss function that captures both the relevance of audio segments within a scene and that of sound events within a segment. Using experiments on real audio scenes, we show that we can discriminate audio scenes with high accuracy after listening in for less than a second. This preserves 93% of the detection accuracy obtained after hearing the entire scene.
RULENet: End-to-end Learning with the Dual-estimator for Remaining Useful Life Estimation Remaining Useful Life (RUL) estimation is a key element in Predictive maintenance. System agnostic approaches which just utilize sensor and operational time series have gained popularity due to its ease of implementation. Due to the nature of measurement or degradation mechanisms, its accurate estimation is not always feasible. Existing methods suppose the range of RUL with feasible estimation is given from results at upstream tasks or prior knowledge. In this work, we propose the novel framework of end-to-end learning for RUL estimation, which is called RULENet. RULENet simultaneously optimizes its Dual-estimator for RUL estimation and its feasible range estimation. Experimental results on NASA C-MAPSS benchmark data show the superiority of the end-to-end framework.
Chemical profiling of red wines using surface-1 enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) In this study, we explored surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) for analyzing red wine through several facile sample preparations. These approaches involved the direct analysis of red wine with Raman spectroscopy and the direct incubation of red wine with silver nanoparticles (i.e., AgNPs) and a reproducible SERS substrate, the AgNP mirror, previously developed by our group. However, as previously reported for red wine analysis, the signals obtained through these approaches were either due to interference of the fluorescence exhibited by pigments or mainly attributed to a DNA fraction, adenine. Therefore, an innovative approach was developed using solvent extraction to provide more characteristic information that is beneficial for wine chemical profiling and discrimination. Signature peaks in the wine extract spectra were found to match those of condensed tannins, resveratrol, anthocyanins, gallic acid, and catechin, which indicated that SERS combined with extraction is an innovative method for profiling wine chemicals and overcoming well-known challenges in red wine analysis. Based on this approach, we have successfully differentiated three red wines and demonstrated the possible relation between the overall intensity of wine spectra and the ratings. Since the wine chemical profile is closely related to the grape species, wine quality, and wine authentication, the SERS approach to obtain rich spectral information from red wine could advance wine chemical analysis.
Inductive and Unsupervised Representation Learning on Graph Structured Objects Inductive and unsupervised graph learning is a critical technique for predictive or information retrieval tasks where label information is difficult to obtain. It is also challenging to make graph learning inductive and unsupervised at the same time, as learning processes guided by reconstruction error based loss functions inevitably demand graph similarity evaluation that is usually computationally intractable. In this paper, we propose a general framework SEED (Sampling, Encoding, and Embedding Distributions) for inductive and unsupervised representation learning on graph structured objects. Instead of directly dealing with the computational challenges raised by graph similarity evaluation, given an input graph, the SEED framework samples a number of subgraphs whose reconstruction errors could be efficiently evaluated, encodes the subgraph samples into a collection of subgraph vectors, and employs the embedding of the subgraph vector distribution as the output vector representation for the input graph. By theoretical analysis, we demonstrate the close connection between SEED and graph isomorphism. Using public benchmark datasets, our empirical study suggests the proposed SEED framework is able to achieve up to 10% improvement, compared with competitive baseline methods.
A Generic Edge-Empowered Graph Convolutional Network via Node-Edge Mutual Enhancement Graph Convolutional Networks (GCNs) have shown to be a powerful tool for analyzing graph-structured data. Most of previous GCN methods focus on learning a good node representation by aggregating the representations of neighboring nodes, whereas largely ignoring the edge information. Although few recent methods have been proposed to integrate edge attributes into GCNs to initialize edge embeddings, these methods do not work when edge attributes are (partially) unavailable. Can we develop a generic edge-empowered framework to exploit node-edge enhancement, regardless of the availability of edge attributes? In this paper, we propose a novel framework EE-GCN that achieves node-edge enhancement. In particular, the framework EE-GCN includes three key components: (i) Initialization: this step is to initialize the embeddings of both nodes and edges. Unlike node embedding initialization, we propose a line graph-based method to initialize the embedding of edges regardless of edge attributes. (ii) Feature space alignment: we propose a translation-based mapping method to align edge embedding with node embedding space, and the objective function is penalized by a translation loss when both spaces are not aligned. (iii) Node-edge mutually enhanced updating: node embedding is updated by aggregating embedding of neighboring nodes and associated edges, while edge embedding is updated by the embedding of associated nodes and itself. Through the above improvements, our framework provides a generic strategy for all of the spatial-based GCNs to allow edges to participate in embedding computation and exploit node-edge mutual enhancement. Finally, we present extensive experimental results to validate the improved performances of our method in terms of node classification, link prediction, and graph classification.
Adversarial Cooperative Imitation Learning for Dynamic Treatment Regimes Recent developments in discovering dynamic treatment regimes (DTRs) have heightened the importance of deep reinforcement learning (DRL) which are used to recover the doctor’s treatment policies. However, existing DRL-based methods expose the following limitations: 1) supervised methods based on behavior cloning suffer from compounding errors, 2) the self-defined reward signals in reinforcement learning models are either too sparse or need clinical guidance, 3) only positive trajectories (e.g. survived patients) are considered in current imitation learning models, with negative trajectories (e.g. deceased patients) been largely ignored, which are examples of what not to do and could help the learned policy avoid repeating mistakes. To address these limitations, in this paper, we propose the adversarial cooperative imitation learning model, ACIL, to deduce the optimal dynamic treatment regimes that mimics the positive trajectories while differs from the negative trajectories. Specifically, two discriminators are used to help achieve this goal: an adversarial discriminator is designed to minimize the discrepancies between the trajectories generated from the policy and the positive trajectories, and a cooperative discriminator is used to distinguish the negative trajectories from the positive and generated trajectories. The reward signals from the discriminators are utilized to refine the policy for dynamic treatment regimes. Experiments on the publicly real-world medical data demonstrate that ACIL improves the likelihood of patient survival and provides better dynamic treatment regimes with the exploitation of information from both positive and negative trajectories.
APTrace: A Responsive System for Agile Enterprise Level Causality Analysis While backtracking analysis has been successful in assisting the investigation of complex security attacks, it faces a critical dependency explosion problem. To address this problem, security analysts currently need to tune backtracking analysis manually with different case-specific heuristics. However, existing systems fail to fulfill two important system requirements to achieve effective backtracking analysis. First, there need flexible abstractions to express various types of heuristics. Second, the system needs to be responsive in providing updates so that the progress of backtracking analysis can be frequently inspected, which typically involves multiple rounds of manual tuning. In this paper, we propose a novel system, APTrace, to meet both of the above requirements. As we demonstrate in the evaluation, security analysts can effectively express heuristics to reduce more than 99.5% of irrelevant events in the backtracking analysis of real-world attack cases. To improve the responsiveness of backtracking analysis, we present a novel execution-window partitioning algorithm that significantly reduces the waiting time between two consecutive updates (especially, 57 times reduction for the top 1% waiting time).
Read Pseudo RGB D for Self Improving Monocular SLAM and Depth Prediction (arXiv). Classical monocular Simultaneous Localization And Mapping (SLAM) and the recently emerging convolutional neural networks (CNNs) for monocular depth prediction represent two largely disjoint approaches towards building a 3D map of the surrounding environment. In this paper, we demonstrate that the coupling of these two by leveraging the strengths of each mitigates the other’s shortcomings. Specifically, we propose a joint narrow and wide baseline based self improving framework, where on the one hand the CNN predicted depth is leveraged to perform pseudo RGB D feature based SLAM, leading to better accuracy and robustness than the monocular RGB SLAM baseline. On the other hand, the bundle adjusted 3D scene structures and camera poses from the more principled geometric SLAM are injected back into the depth network through novel wide baseline losses proposed for improving the depth prediction network, which then continues to contribute towards better pose and 3D structure estimation in the next iteration. We emphasize that our framework only requires unlabeled monocular videos in both training and inference stages, and yet is able to outperform state of the art self supervised monocular and stereo depth prediction networks (e.g, Monodepth2) and feature based monocular SLAM system (i.e, ORB SLAM). Extensive experiments on KITTI and TUM RGB D datasets verify the superiority of our self improving geometry CNN framework.
Generating Followup Questions for Interpretable Multi hop Question Answering We propose a framework for answering open domain multi hop questions in which partial information is read and used to generate followup questions, to finally be answered by a pretrained single hop answer extractor. This framework makes each hop interpretable, and makes the retrieval associated with later hops as flexible and specific as for the first hop. As a first instantiation of this framework, we train a pointer generator network to predict followup questions based on the question and partial information. This provides a novel application of a neural question generation network, which is applied to give weak ground truth single hop followup questions based on the final answers and their supporting facts. Learning to generate followup questions that select the relevant answer spans against downstream supporting facts, while avoiding distracting premises, poses an exciting semantic challenge for text generation. We present an evaluation using the two hop bridge questions of HotpotQA
You Are What You Do: Hunting Stealthy Malware via Data Provenance Analysis o subvert recent advances in perimeter and host security, the attacker community has developed and employed various attack vectors to make a malware much more stealthy than before to penetrate the target system and prolong its presence. The advanced malware, or stealthy malware, impersonates or abuses benign applications and legitimate system tools to minimize its footprints in the target system. One example of such stealthy malware is fileless malware, which resides its malicious logic mostly in the memory of well-trusted processes. It is difficult for traditional detection tools, such as malware scanners, to detect it, as the malware normally does not expose its malicious payload in a file and hides its malicious behaviors among the benign behaviors of the processes.In this paper, we present PROVDETECTOR, a provenance-based approach for detecting stealthy malware. The intuition behind PROVDETECTOR is that although a stealthy malware may impersonate or abuse a benign process, it still exposes its malicious behaviors in the OS (operating system) level provenance. Based on this intuition, PROVDETECTOR first employs a novel selection algorithm to identify possibly malicious parts in the OS level provenance data of a process. Then, it applies a neural embedding and machine learning pipeline to automatically detect any behavior that deviates significantly from normal behaviors. We evaluate our approach on a large provenance dataset from an enterprise network and demonstrate that it achieves very high detection performance (an average F1 score of 0.974) of stealthy malware. Further, we conduct thorough interpretability studies to understand the internals of the learned machine learning models.
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