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Adaptation Across Extreme Variations using Unlabeled Bridges

Adaptation Across Extreme Variations using Unlabeled Bridges We tackle an unsupervised domain adaptation problem for which the domain discrepancy between labeled source and unlabeled target domains is large, due to many factors of inter- and intra-domain variation. While deep domain adaptation methods have been realized by reducing the domain discrepancy, these are difficult to apply when domains are significantly different. We propose to decompose domain discrepancy into multiple but smaller, and thus easier to minimize, discrepancies by introducing unlabeled bridging domains that connect the source and target domains. We realize our proposed approach through an extension of the domain adversarial neural network with multiple discriminators, each of which accounts for reducing discrepancies between unlabeled (bridge, target) domains and a mix of all precedent domains including source. We validate the effectiveness of our method on several adaptation tasks including object recognition and semantic segmentation.

Improving Face Recognition by Clustering Unlabeled Faces in the Wild

While deep face recognition has benefited significantly from large-scale labeled data, current research is focused on leveraging unlabeled data to further boost performance, reducing the cost of human annotation. Prior work has mostly been in controlled settings, where the labeled and unlabeled data sets have no overlapping identities by construction. This is not realistic in large-scale face recognition, where one must contend with such overlaps, the frequency of which increases with the volume of data. Ignoring identity overlap leads to significant labeling noise, as data from the same identity is split into multiple clusters. To address this, we propose a novel identity separation method based on extreme value theory. It is formulated as an out-of-distribution detection algorithm, and greatly reduces the problems caused by overlapping-identity label noise. Considering cluster assignments as pseudo-labels, we must also overcome the labeling noise from clustering errors. We propose a modulation of the cosine loss, where the modulation weights correspond to an estimate of clustering uncertainty. Extensive experiments on both controlled and real settings demonstrate our method’s consistent improvements over supervised baselines, e.g., 11.6% improvement on IJB-A verification.

Improving Face Recognition by Clustering Unlabeled Faces in the Wild (arXiv)

Read Improving Face Recognition by Clustering Unlabeled Faces in the Wild (arXiv). While deep face recognition has benefited significantly from large scale labeled data, current research is focused on leveraging unlabeled data to further boost performance, reducing the cost of human annotation. Prior work has mostly been in controlled settings, where the labeled and unlabeled data sets have no overlapping identities by construction. This is not realistic in large scale face recognition, where one must contend with such overlaps, the frequency of which increases with the volume of data. Ignoring identity overlap leads to significant labeling noise, as data from the same identity is split into multiple clusters. To address this, we propose a novel identity separation method based on extreme value theory. It is formulated as an out of distribution detection algorithm, and greatly reduces the problems caused by overlapping identity label noise. Considering cluster assignments as pseudo labels, we must also overcome the labeling noise from clustering errors. We propose a modulation of the cosine loss, where the modulation weights correspond to an estimate of clustering uncertainty. Extensive experiments on both controlled and real settings demonstrate our method’s consistent improvements over supervised baselines, e.g., 11.6% improvement on IJB A verification.

Towards Universal Representation Learning for Deep Face Recognition

Towards Universal Representation Learning for Deep Face Recognition Recognizing wild faces is extremely hard as they appear with all kinds of variations. Traditional methods either train with specifically annotated variation data from target domains, or by introducing unlabeled target variation data to adapt from the training data. Instead, we propose a universal representation learning framework that can deal with larger variation unseen in the given training data without leveraging target domain knowledge. We firstly synthesize training data alongside some semantically meaningful variations, such as low resolution, occlusion and head pose. However, directly feeding the augmented data for training will not converge well as the newly introduced samples are mostly hard examples. We propose to split the feature embedding into multiple sub-embeddings, and associate different confidence values for each sub-embedding to smooth the training procedure. The sub-embeddings are further decorrelated by regularizing variation classification loss and variation adversarial loss on different partitions of them. Experiments show that our method achieves top performance on general face recognition datasets such as LFW and MegaFace, while significantly better on extreme benchmarks such as TinyFace and IJB-S.

Active Adversarial Domain Adaptation

We propose an active learning approach for transferring representations across domains. Our approach, active adversarial domain adaptation (AADA), explores a duality between two related problems: adversarial domain alignment and importance sampling for adapting models across domains. The former uses a domain discriminative model to align domains, while the latter utilizes the model to weigh samples to account for distribution shifts. Specifically, our importance weight promotes unlabeled samples with large uncertainty in classification and diversity compared to la-beled examples, thus serving as a sample selection scheme for active learning. We show that these two views can be unified in one framework for domain adaptation and transfer learning when the source domain has many labeled examples while the target domain does not. AADA provides significant improvements over fine-tuning based approaches and other sampling methods when the two domains are closely related. Results on challenging domain adaptation tasks such as object detection demonstrate that the advantage over baseline approaches is retained even after hundreds of examples being actively annotated.

Adversarial Learning of Privacy-Preserving and Task-Oriented Representations

Adversarial Learning of Privacy-Preserving and Task-Oriented Representations Data privacy has emerged as an important issue as data-driven deep learning has been an essential component of modern machine learning systems. For instance, there could be a potential privacy risk of machine learning systems via the model inversion attack, whose goal is to reconstruct the input data from the latent representation of deep networks. Our work aims at learning a privacy-preserving and task-oriented representation to defend against such model inversion attacks. Specifically, we propose an adversarial reconstruction learning framework that prevents the latent representations decoded into original input data. By simulating the expected behavior of adversary, our framework is realized by minimizing the negative pixel reconstruction loss or the negative feature reconstruction (i.e., perceptual distance) loss. We validate the proposed method on face attribute prediction, showing that our method allows protecting visual privacy with a small decrease in utility performance. In addition, we show the utility-privacy trade-off with different choices of hyperparameter for negative perceptual distance loss at training, allowing service providers to determine the right level of privacy-protection with a certain utility performance. Moreover, we provide an extensive study with different selections of features, tasks, and the data to further analyze their influence on privacy protection.

Domain Adaptation for Structured Output via Discriminative Patch Representations

Domain Adaptation for Structured Output via Discriminative Patch Representations Predicting structured outputs such as semantic segmentation relies on expensive per-pixel annotations to learn supervised models like convolutional neural networks. However, models trained on one data domain may not generalize well to other domains without annotations for model finetuning. To avoid the labor-intensive process of annotation, we develop a domain adaptation method to adapt the source data to the unlabeled target domain. We propose to learn discriminative feature representations of patches in the source domain by discovering multiple modes of patch-wise output distribution through the construction of a clustered space. With such representations as guidance, we use an adversarial learning scheme to push the feature representations of target patches in the clustered space closer to the distributions of source patches. In addition, we show that our framework is complementary to existing domain adaptation techniques and achieves consistent improvements on semantic segmentation. Extensive ablations and results are demonstrated on numerous benchmark datasets with various settings, such as synthetic-to-real and cross-city scenarios.

Feature Transfer Learning for Face Recognition with Under-Represented Data

Feature Transfer Learning for Face Recognition with Under-Represented Data Despite the large volume of face recognition datasets, there is a significant portion of subjects, of which the samples are insufficient and thus under-represented. Ignoring such significant portion results in insufficient training data. Training with under-represented data leads to biased classifiers in conventionally-trained deep networks. In this paper, we propose a center-based feature transfer framework to augment the feature space of under-represented subjects from the regular subjects that have sufficiently diverse samples. A Gaussian prior of the variance is assumed across all subjects and the variance from regular ones are transferred to the under-represented ones. This encourages the under-represented distribution to be closer to the regular distribution. Further, an alternating training regimen is proposed to simultaneously achieve less biased classifiers and a more discriminative feature representation. We conduct ablative study to mimic the under-represented datasets by varying the portion of under-represented classes on the MS-Celeb-1M dataset. Advantageous results on LFW, IJB-A and MS-Celeb-1M demonstrate the effectiveness of our feature transfer and training strategy, compared to both general baselines and state-of-the-art methods. Moreover, our feature transfer successfully presents smooth visual interpolation, which conducts disentanglement to preserve identity of a class while augmenting its feature space with non-identity variations such as pose and lighting.

Gotta Adapt ’Em All: Joint Pixel and Feature-Level Domain Adaptation for Recognition in the Wild

Gotta Adapt ’Em All: Joint Pixel and Feature-Level Domain Adaptation for Recognition in the Wild Recent developments in deep domain adaptation have allowed knowledge transfer from a labeled source domain to an unlabeled target domain at the level of intermediate features or input pixels. We propose that advantages may be derived by combining them, in the form of different insights that lead to a novel design and complementary properties that result in better performance. At the feature level, inspired by insights from semi-supervised learning, we propose a classification-aware domain adversarial neural network that brings target examples into more classifiable regions of source domain. Next, we posit that computer vision insights are more amenable to injection at the pixel level. In particular, we use 3D geometry and image synthesis based on a generalized appearance flow to preserve identity across pose transformations, while using an attribute-conditioned CycleGAN to translate a single source into multiple target images that differ in lower-level properties such as lighting. Besides standard UDA benchmark, we validate on a novel and apt problem of car recognition in unlabeled surveillance images using labeled images from the web, handling explicitly specified, nameable factors of variation through pixel-level and implicit, unspecified factors through feature-level adaptation.

Unsupervised Domain Adaptation for Distance Metric Learning

Unsupervised Domain Adaptation for Distance Metric Learning Unsupervised domain adaptation is a promising avenue to enhance the performance of deep neural networks on a target domain, using labels only from a source domain. However, the two predominant methods, domain discrepancy reduction learning and semi-supervised learning, are not readily applicable when source and target domains do not share a common label space. This paper addresses the above scenario by learning a representation space that retains discriminative power on both the (labeled) source and (unlabeled) target domains while keeping representations for the two domains well-separated. Inspired by a theoretical analysis, we first reformulate the disjoint classification task, where the source and target domains correspond to non-overlapping class labels, to a verification one. To handle both within and cross domain verifications, we propose a Feature Transfer Network (FTN) to separate the target feature space from the original source space while aligned with a transformed source space. Moreover, we present a non-parametric multi-class entropy minimization loss to further boost the discriminative power of FTNs on the target domain. In experiments, we first illustrate how FTN works in a controlled setting of adapting from MNIST-M to MNIST with disjoint digit classes between the two domains and then demonstrate the effectiveness of FTNs through state-of-the-art performances on a cross-ethnicity face recognition problem.