Reconfigurable Intelligent Surfaces (RIS) are surfaces containing numerous passive reflecting elements that can be electronically controlled to manipulate the wireless propagation environment. In RIS-aided MIMO, these surfaces are strategically placed to enhance the communication links between the transmitter and receiver antennas. The RIS elements can adjust their reflection properties to optimize the signal strength and quality, mitigating interference and improving overall system performance.


RIS-aided mmWave Beamforming for Two-way Communications of Multiple Pairs

Millimeter‑wave (mmWave) communications is a key enabler towards realizing enhanced Mobile Broadband (eMBB) as a key promise of 5G and beyond, due to the abundance of bandwidth available at mmWave bands. An mmWave coverage map consists of blind spots due to shadowing and fading especially in dense urban environments. Beamformingemploying massive MIMO is primarily used to address high attenuation in the mmWave channel. Due to their ability in manipulating the impinging electromagnetic waves in an energy‑efficient fashion, Reconfigurable Intelligent Surfaces (RISs) are considered a great match to complement the massive MIMO systems in realizing the beamforming task and therefore effectively filling in the mmWave coverage gap. In this paper, we propose a novel RIS architecture, namely RIS‑UPA where the RIS elements are arranged in a Uniform Planar Array (UPA). We show how RIS‑UPA can be used in an RIS‑aided MIMO system to fill the coverage gap in mmWave by forming beams of a custom footprint, with optimized main lobe gain, minimum leakage, and fairly sharp edges. Further, we propose a configuration for RIS‑UPA that can support multiple two‑way communication pairs, simultaneously. We theoretically obtain closed‑form low‑complexity solutions for our design and validate our theoretical findings by extensive numerical experiments.