Xiang Zhang works at Pennsylvania State University.


Adaptive Neural Network for Node Classification in Dynamic Networks

Given a network with the labels for a subset of nodes, transductive node classification targets to predict the labels for the remaining nodes in the network. This technique has been used in a variety of applications such as voxel functionality detection in brain network and group label prediction in social network. Most existing node classification approaches are performed in static networks. However, many real-world networks are dynamic and evolve over time. The dynamics of both node attributes and network topology jointly determine the node labels. In this paper, we study the problem of classifying the nodes in dynamic networks. The task is challenging for three reasons. First, it is hard to effectively learn the spatial and temporal information simultaneously. Second, the network evolution is complex. The evolving patterns lie in both node attributes and network topology. Third, for different networks or even different nodes in the same network, the node attributes, the neighborhood node representations and the network topology usually affect the node labels differently, it is desirable to assess the relative importance of different factors over evolutionary time scales. To address the challenges, we propose AdaNN, an adaptive neural network for transductive node classification. AdaNN learns node attribute information by aggregating the node and its neighbors, and extracts network topology information with a random walk strategy. The attribute information and topology information are further fed into two connected gated recurrent units to learn the spatio-temporal contextual information. Additionally, a triple attention module is designed to automatically model the different factors that influence the node representations. AdaNN is the first node classification model that is adaptive to different kinds of dynamic networks. Extensive experiments on real datasets demonstrate the effectiveness of AdaNN.

Spatio-Temporal Attentive RNN for Node Classification in Temporal Attributed Graphs

Node classification in graph-structured data aims to classify the nodes where labels are only available for a subset of nodes. This problem has attracted considerable research efforts in recent years. In real-world applications, both graph topology and node attributes evolve over time. Existing techniques, however, mainly focus on static graphs and lack the capability to simultaneously learn both temporal and spatial/structural features. Node classification in temporal attributed graphs is challenging for two major aspects. First, effectively modeling the spatio-temporal contextual information is hard. Second, as temporal and spatial dimensions are entangled, to learn the feature representation of one target node, it’s desirable and challenging to differentiate the relative importance of different factors, such as different neighbors and time periods. In this paper, we propose STAR, a spatio-temporal attentive recurrent network model, to deal with the above challenges. STAR extracts the vector representation of neighborhood by sampling and aggregating local neighbor nodes. It further feeds both the neighborhood representation and node attributes into a gated recurrent unit network to jointly learn the spatio-temporal contextual information. On top of that, we take advantage of the dual attention mechanism to perform a thorough analysis on the model interpretability. Extensive experiments on real datasets demonstrate the effectiveness of the STAR model.

Deep Co-Clustering

Co-clustering partitions instances and features simultaneously by leveraging the duality between them, and it often yields impressive performance improvement over traditional clustering algorithms. The recent development in learning deep representations has demonstrated the advantage in extracting effective features. However, the research on leveraging deep learning frameworks for co-clustering is limited for two reasons: 1) current deep clustering approaches usually decouple feature learning and cluster assignment as two separate steps, which cannot yield the task-specific feature representation; 2) existing deep clustering approaches cannot learn representations for instances and features simultaneously. In this paper, we propose a deep learning model for co-clustering called DeepCC. DeepCC utilizes the deep autoencoder for dimension reduction, and employs a variant of Gaussian Mixture Model (GMM) to infer the cluster assignments. A mutual information loss is proposed to bridge the training of instances and features. DeepCC jointly optimizes the parameters of the deep autoencoder and the mixture model in an end-to-end fashion on both the instance and the feature spaces, which can help the deep autoencoder escape from local optima and the mixture model circumvent the Expectation-Maximization (EM) algorithm. To the best of our knowledge, DeepCC is the first deep learning model for co-clustering. Experimental results on various dataseis demonstrate the effectiveness of DeepCC.

Co-Regularized Deep Multi-Network Embedding

Network embedding aims to learn a low-dimensional vector representation for each node in the social and information networks, with the constraint to preserve network structures. Most existing methods focus on single network embedding, ignoring the relationship between multiple networks. In many real-world applications, however, multiple networks may contain complementary information, which can lead to further refined node embeddings. Thus, in this paper, we propose a novel multi-network embedding method, DMNE. DMNE is flexible. It allows different networks to have different sizes, to be (un)weighted and (un)directed. It leverages multiple networks via cross-network relationships between nodes in different networks, which may form many-to-many node mappings, and be associated with weights. To model the non-linearity of the network data, we develop DMNE to have a new deep learning architecture, which coordinates multiple neural networks (one for each input network data) with a co-regularized loss function. With multiple layers of non-linear mappings, DMNE progressively transforms each input network to a highly non-linear latent space, and in the meantime, adapts different spaces to each other through a co-regularized learning schema. Extensive experimental results on real-life datasets demonstrate the effectiveness of our method.