Akira Saito works at Tokyo Medical University.


Prediction of Non-Muscle Invasive Bladder Cancer Recurrence using Machine Learning of Quantitative Nuclear Features

Non-muscle invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) generally has a good prognosis, however, recurrence after transurethral resection (TUR), the standard primary treatment, is a major problem. Clinical management after TUR has been based on risk classification using clinicopathological factors, but these classifications are not complete. In this study, we attempted to predict early recurrence of NMIBC based on machine learning of quantitative morphological features. In general, structural, cellular, and nuclear atypia are evaluated to determine cancer atypia. However, since it is difficult to accurately quantify structural atypia from TUR specimens, in this study, we used only nuclear atypia and analyzed it using feature extraction followed by classification using Support Vector Machine and Random Forest machine learning algorithms. For the analysis, 125 patients diagnosed with NMIBC were used, data from 95 patients were randomly selected for the training set, and data from 30 patients were randomly selected for the test set. The results showed that the support vector machine-based model predicted recurrence within 2 years after TUR with a probability of 90% and the random forest-based model with probability of 86.7%. In the future, the system can be used to objectively predict NMIBC recurrence after TUR.

Prediction of Early Recurrence of Hepatocellular Carcinoma after Resection using Digital Pathology Images Assessed by Machine Learning

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a representative primary liver cancer caused by long-term and repetitive liver injury. Surgical resection is generally selected as the radical cure treatment. Because the early recurrence of HCC after resection is associated with low overall survival, the prediction of recurrence after resection is clinically important. However, the pathological characteristics of the early recurrence of HCC have not yet been elucidated. We attempted to predict the early recurrence of HCC after resection based on digital pathologic images of hematoxylin and eosin-stained specimens and machine learning applying a support vector machine (SVM). The 158 HCC patients meeting the Milan criteria who underwent surgical resection were included in this study. The patients were categorized into three groups: Group I, patients with HCC recurrence within 1 year after resection (16 for training and 23 for test), Group II, patients with HCC recurrence between 1 and 2 years after resection (22 and 28), and Group III, patients with no HCC recurrence within 4 years after resection (31 and 38). The SVM-based prediction method separated the three groups with 89.9% (80/89) accuracy. Prediction of Groups I was consistent for all cases, while Group II was predicted to be Group III in one case, and Group III was predicted to be Group II in 8 cases. The use of digital pathology and machine learning could be used for highly accurate prediction of HCC recurrence after surgical resection, especially that for early recurrence. Currently, in most cases after HCC resection, regular blood tests and diagnostic imaging are used for follow-up observation, however, the use of digital pathology coupled with machine learning offers potential as a method for objective postoprative follow-up observation.