Asim Kadav is a former Senior Researcher in the Machine Learning Department at NEC Laboratories America, Inc.

Posts

COMPOSER: Compositional Reasoning of Group Activity in Videos with Keypoint-Only Modality

COMPOSER: Compositional Reasoning of Group Activity in Videos with Keypoint-Only Modality Group Activity Recognition detects the activity collectively performed by a group of actors, which requires compositional reasoning of actors and objects. We approach the task by modeling the video as tokens that represent the multi-scale semantic concepts in the video. We propose COMPOSER, a Multiscale Transformer based architecture that performs attention-based reasoning over tokens at each scale and learns group activity compositionally. In addition, prior works suffer from scene biases with privacy and ethical concerns. We only use the keypoint modality which reduces scene biases and prevents acquiring detailed visual data that may contain private or biased information of users. We improve the multiscale representations in COMPOSER by clustering the intermediate scale representations, while maintaining consistent cluster assignments between scales. Finally, we use techniques such as auxiliary prediction and data augmentations tailored to the keypoint signals to aid model training. We demonstrate the model’s strength and interpretability on two widely-used datasets (Volleyball and Collective Activity). COMPOSER achieves up to +5.4% improvement with just the keypoint modality (Code is available at https://github.com/hongluzhou/composer.).

Self-supervised Video Representation Learning with Cascade Positive Retrieval

Self-supervised video representation learning has been shown to effectively improve downstream tasks such as video retrieval and action recognition. In this paper, we present the Cascade Positive Retrieval (CPR) that successively mines positive examples w.r.t. the query for contrastive learning in a cascade of stages. Specifically, CPR exploits multiple views of a query example in different modalities, where an alternative view may help find another positive example dissimilar in the query view. We explore the effects of possible CPR configurations in ablations including the number of mining stages, the top similar example selection ratio in each stage, and progressive training with an incremental number of the final Top-k selection. The overall mining quality is measured to reflect the recall across training set classes. CPR reaches a median class mining recall of 83.3%, outperforming previous work by 5.5%. Implementation-wise, CPR is complementary to pretext tasks and can be easily applied to previous work. In the evaluation of pretraining on UCF101, CPR consistently improves existing work and even achieves state-of-the-art R@1 of 56.7% and 24.4% in video retrieval as well as 83.8% and 54.8% in action recognition on UCF101 and HMDB51. The code is available at https://github.com/necla-ml/CPR.

SplitBrain: Hybrid Data and Model Parallel Deep Learning

SplitBrain: Hybrid Data and Model Parallel Deep Learning The recent success of deep learning applications has coincided with those widely available powerful computational resources for training sophisticated machine learning models with huge datasets. Nonetheless, training large models such as convolutional neural networks using model parallelism (as opposed to data parallelism) is challenging because the complex nature of communication between model shards makes it difficult to partition the computation efficiently across multiple machines with an acceptable trade off. This paper presents SplitBrain, a high performance distributed deep learning framework supporting hybrid data and model parallelism. Specifically, SplitBrain provides layer specific partitioning that co locates compute intensive convolutional layers while sharding memory demanding layers. A novel scalable group communication is proposed to further improve the training throughput with reduced communication overhead. The results show that SplitBrain can achieve nearly linear speedup while saving up to 67% of memory consumption for data and model parallel VGG over CIFAR 10.

Dual Projection Generative Adversarial Networks for Conditional Image Generation

Dual Projection Generative Adversarial Networks for Conditional Image Generation onditional Generative Adversarial Networks (cGANs) extend the standard unconditional GAN framework to learning joint data-label distributions from samples, and have been established as powerful generative models capable of generating high-fidelity imagery. A challenge of training such a model lies in properly infusing class information into its generator and discriminator. For the discriminator, class conditioning can be achieved by either (1) directly incorporating labels as input or (2) involving labels in an auxiliary classification loss. In this paper, we show that the former directly aligns the class-conditioned fake-and-real data distributions P (image|class) (data matching), while the latter aligns data-conditioned class distributions P (class|image) (label matching). Although class separability does not directly translate to sample quality and becomes a burden if classification itself is intrinsically difficult, the discriminator cannot provide useful guidance for the generator if features of distinct classes are mapped to the same point and thus become inseparable. Motivated by this intuition, we propose a Dual Projection GAN (P2GAN) model that learns to balance between data matching and label matching. We then propose an improved cGAN model with Auxiliary Classification that directly aligns the fake and real conditionals P (class|image) by minimizing their f-divergence. Experiments on a synthetic Mixture of Gaussian (MoG) dataset and a variety of real-world datasets including CIFAR100, ImageNet, and VGGFace2 demonstrate the efficacy of our proposed models.

Learning Higher-order Object Interactions for Keypoint-based Video Understanding

Learning Higher-order Object Interactions for Keypoint-based Video Understanding Action recognition is an important problem that requires identifying actions in video by learning complex interactions across scene actors and objects. However, modern deep-learning based networks often require significant computation and may capture scene context using various modalities that further increases compute costs. Efficient methods such as those used for AR/VR often only use human-keypoint information but suffer from a loss of scene context that hurts accuracy. In this paper, we describe an action-localization method, KeyNet, that uses only the keypoint data for tracking and action recognition. Specifically, KeyNet introduces the use of object based keypoint information to capture context in the scene. Our method illustrates how to build a structured intermediate representation that allows modeling higher-order interactions in the scene from object and human keypoints without using any RGB information. We find that KeyNet is able to track and classify human actions at just 5 FPS. More importantly, we demonstrate that object keypoints can be modeled to recover any loss in context from using keypoint information over AVA action and Kinetics datasets.

Hopper: Multi-hop Transformer for Spatio-Temporal Reasoning

Hopper: Multi-hop Transformer for Spatio-Temporal Reasoning This paper considers the problem of spatiotemporal object-centric reasoning in videos. Central to our approach is the notion of object permanence, i.e., the ability to reason about the location of objects as they move through the video while being occluded, contained or carried by other objects. Existing deep learning based approaches often suffer from spatiotemporal biases when applied to video reasoning problems. We propose Hopper, which uses a Multi-hop Transformer for reasoning object permanence in videos. Given a video and a localization query, Hopper reasons over image and object tracks to automatically hop over critical frames in an iterative fashion to predict the final position of the object of interest. We demonstrate the effectiveness of using a contrastive loss to reduce spatiotemporal biases. We evaluate over CATER dataset and find that Hopper achieves 73.2% Top-1 accuracy using just 1 FPS by hopping through just a few critical frames. We also demonstrate Hopper can perform long-term reasoning by building a CATER-h dataset that requires multi-step reasoning to localize objects of interest correctly.

Tripping through time: Efficient Localization of Activities in Videos

Tripping through time: Efficient Localization of Activities in Videos Localizing moments in untrimmed videos via language queries is a new and interesting task that requires the ability to accurately ground language into video. Previous works have approached this task by processing the entire video, often more than once, to localize relevant activities. In the real world applications of this approach, such as video surveillance, efficiency is a key system requirement. In this paper, we present TripNet, an end-to-end system that uses a gated attention architecture to model fine-grained textual and visual representations in order to align text and video content. Furthermore, TripNet uses reinforcement learning to efficiently localize relevant activity clips in long videos, by learning how to intelligently skip around the video. It extracts visual features for few frames to perform activity classification. In our evaluation over Charades-STA [14], ActivityNet Captions [26] and the TACoS dataset [36], we find that TripNet achieves high accuracy and saves processing time by only looking at 32-41% of the entire video.

S3VAE: Self-Supervised Sequential VAE for Representation Disentanglement and Data Generation

S3VAE: Self-Supervised Sequential VAE for Representation Disentanglement and Data Generation We propose a sequential variational autoencoder to learn disentangled representations of sequential data (e.g., videos and audios) under self-supervision. Specifically, we exploit the benefits of some readily accessible supervision signals from input data itself or some off-the-shelf functional models and accordingly design auxiliary tasks for our model to utilize these signals. With the supervision of the signals, our model can easily disentangle the representation of an input sequence into static factors and dynamic factors (i.e., time-invariant and time-varying parts). Comprehensive experiments across videos and audios verify the effectiveness of our model on representation disentanglement and generation of sequential data, and demonstrate that, our model with self-supervision performs comparable to, if not better than, the fully-supervised model with ground truth labels, and outperforms state-of-the-art unsupervised models by a large margin.

15 Keypoints Is All You Need

15 Keypoints Is All You Need Pose-tracking is an important problem that requires identifying unique human pose-instances and matching them temporally across different frames in a video. However, existing pose-tracking methods are unable to accurately model temporal relationships and require significant computation, often computing the tracks offline. We present an efficient multi-person pose-tracking method, KeyTrack that only relies on keypoint information without using any RGB or optical flow to locate and track human keypoints in real-time. KeyTrack is a top-down approach that learns spatio-temporal pose relationships by modeling the multi-person pose-tracking problem as a novel Pose Entailment task using a Transformer based architecture. Furthermore, KeyTrack uses a novel, parameter-free, keypoint refinement technique that improves the keypoint estimates used by the Transformers. We achieve state-of-the-art results on PoseTrack’17 and PoseTrack’18 benchmarks while using only a fraction of the computation used by most other methods for computing the tracking information.

Contextual Grounding of Natural Language Entities in Images

Contextual Grounding of Natural Language Entities in Images In this paper, we introduce a contextual grounding approach that captures the context in corresponding text entities and image regions to improve the grounding accuracy. Specifically, the proposed architecture accepts pre-trained text token embeddings and image object features from an off-the-shelf object detector as input. Additional encoding to capture the positional and spatial information can be added to enhance the feature quality. There are separate text and image branches facilitating respective architectural refinements for different modalities. The text branch is pre-trained on a large-scale masked language modeling task while the image branch is trained from scratch. Next, the model learns the contextual representations of the text tokens and image objects through layers of high-order interaction respectively. The final grounding head ranks the correspondence between the textual and visual representations through cross-modal interaction. In the evaluation, we show that our model achieves the state-of-the-art grounding accuracy of 71.36% over the Flickr30K Entities dataset. No additional pre-training is necessary to deliver competitive results compared with related work that often requires task-agnostic and task-specific pre-training on cross-modal datasets. The implementation is publicly available at https://gitlab.com/necla-ml/grounding.