Data Embedding involves the incorporation of additional information or metadata into a piece of data, such as an image, audio file, or document. This embedded data is often imperceptible to users but can be extracted or utilized for various purposes, such as digital watermarking, authentication, or adding context to the original data.

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Parametric t-Distributed Stochastic Exemplar-centered Embedding

Parametric t-Distributed Stochastic Exemplar-centered Embedding Parametric embedding methods such as parametric t-distributed Stochastic Neighbor Embedding (pt-SNE) enables out-of-sample data visualization without further computationally expensive optimization or approximation. However, pt-SNE favors small mini-batches to train a deep neural network but large mini-batches to approximate its cost function involving all pairwise data point comparisons, and thus has difficulty in finding a balance. To resolve the conflicts, we present parametric t-distributed stochastic exemplar-centered embedding. Our strategy learns embedding parameters by comparing training data only with precomputed exemplars to indirectly preserve local neighborhoods, resulting in a cost function with significantly reduced computational and memory complexity. Moreover, we propose a shallow embedding network with high-order feature interactions for data visualization, which is much easier to tune but produces comparable performance in contrast to a deep feedforward neural network employed by pt-SNE. We empirically demonstrate, using several benchmark datasets, that our proposed method significantly outperforms pt-SNE in terms of robustness, visual effects, and quantitative evaluations.