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UAC: An Uncertainty-Aware Face Clustering Algorithm

UAC: An Uncertainty-Aware Face Clustering Algorithm We investigate ways to leverage uncertainty in face images to improve the quality of the face clusters. We observe that popular clustering algorithms do not produce better quality clusters when clustering probabilistic face representations that implicitly model uncertainty – these algorithms predict up to 9.6X more clusters than the ground truth for the IJB-A benchmark. We empirically analyze the causes for this unexpected behavior and identify excessive false-positives and false-negatives (when comparing face-pairs) as the main reasons for poor quality clustering. Based on this insight, we propose an uncertainty-aware clustering algorithm, UAC, which explicitly leverages uncertainty information during clustering to decide when a pair of faces are similar or when a predicted cluster should be discarded. UAC considers (a) uncertainty of faces in face-pairs, (b) bins face-pairs into different categories based on an uncertainty threshold, (c) intelligently varies the similarity threshold during clustering to reduce false-negatives and false-positives, and (d) discards predicted clusters that exhibit a high measure of uncertainty. Extensive experimental results on several popular benchmarks and comparisons with state-of-the-art clustering methods show that UAC produces significantly better clusters by leveraging uncertainty in face images – predicted number of clusters is up to 0.18X more of the ground truth for the IJB-A benchmark.

Improving Face Recognition by Clustering Unlabeled Faces in the Wild

Improving Face Recognition by Clustering Unlabeled Faces in the Wild While deep face recognition has benefited significantly from large-scale labeled data, current research is focused on leveraging unlabeled data to further boost performance, reducing the cost of human annotation. Prior work has mostly been in controlled settings, where the labeled and unlabeled data sets have no overlapping identities by construction. This is not realistic in large-scale face recognition, where one must contend with such overlaps, the frequency of which increases with the volume of data. Ignoring identity overlap leads to significant labeling noise, as data from the same identity is split into multiple clusters. To address this, we propose a novel identity separation method based on extreme value theory. It is formulated as an out-of-distribution detection algorithm, and greatly reduces the problems caused by overlapping-identity label noise. Considering cluster assignments as pseudo-labels, we must also overcome the labeling noise from clustering errors. We propose a modulation of the cosine loss, where the modulation weights correspond to an estimate of clustering uncertainty. Extensive experiments on both controlled and real settings demonstrate our method’s consistent improvements over supervised baselines, e.g., 11.6% improvement on IJB-A verification.

Improving Face Recognition by Clustering Unlabeled Faces in the Wild

Improving Face Recognition by Clustering Unlabeled Faces in the Wild While deep face recognition has benefited significantly from large scale labeled data, current research is focused on leveraging unlabeled data to further boost performance, reducing the cost of human annotation. Prior work has mostly been in controlled settings, where the labeled and unlabeled data sets have no overlapping identities by construction. This is not realistic in large scale face recognition, where one must contend with such overlaps, the frequency of which increases with the volume of data. Ignoring identity overlap leads to significant labeling noise, as data from the same identity is split into multiple clusters. To address this, we propose a novel identity separation method based on extreme value theory. It is formulated as an out of distribution detection algorithm, and greatly reduces the problems caused by overlapping identity label noise. Considering cluster assignments as pseudo labels, we must also overcome the labeling noise from clustering errors. We propose a modulation of the cosine loss, where the modulation weights correspond to an estimate of clustering uncertainty. Extensive experiments on both controlled and real settings demonstrate our method’s consistent improvements over supervised baselines, e.g., 11.6% improvement on IJB A verification.