Face Recognition, also known as facial recognition, is a biometric technology and computer vision task that involves identifying and verifying individuals by analyzing and comparing their facial features. It is a form of biometric authentication that uses unique patterns and characteristics of a person’s face to determine their identity. Face recognition systems can be used for a variety of applications, including security, access control, authentication, and surveillance.

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FACESEC: A Fine-grained Robustness Evaluation Framework for Face Recognition Systems

FACESEC: A Fine-grained Robustness Evaluation Framework for Face Recognition Systems We present FACESEC, a framework for fine-grained robustness evaluation of face recognition systems. FACESEC evaluation is performed along four dimensions of adversarial modeling: the nature of perturbation (e.g., pixel-level or face accessories), the attacker’s system knowledge (about training data and learning architecture), goals (dodging or impersonation), and capability (tailored to individual inputs or across sets of these). We use FACESEC to study five face recognition systems in both closed-set and open-set settings, and to evaluate the state-of-the-art approach for defending against physically realizable attacks on these. We find that accurate knowledge of neural architecture is significantly more important than knowledge of the training data in black-box attacks. Moreover, we observe that open-set face recognition systems are more vulnerable than closed-set systems under different types of attacks. The efficacy of attacks for other threat model variations, however, appears highly dependent on both the nature of perturbation and the neural network architecture. For example, attacks that involve adversarial face masks are usually more potent, even against adversarially trained models, and the ArcFace architecture tends to be more robust than the others.

Cross-Domain Similarity Learning for Face Recognition in Unseen Domains

Cross-Domain Similarity Learning for Face Recognition in Unseen Domains Face recognition models trained under the assumption of identical training and test distributions often suffer from poor generalization when faced with unknown variations, such as a novel ethnicity or unpredictable individual make-ups during test time. In this paper, we introduce a novel cross-domain metric learning loss, which we dub Cross-Domain Triplet (CDT) loss, to improve face recognition in unseen domains. The CDT loss encourages learning semantically meaningful features by enforcing compact feature clusters of identities from one domain, where the compactness is measured by underlying similarity metrics that belong to another training domain with different statistics. Intuitively, it discriminatively correlates explicit metrics derived from one domain, with triplet samples from another domain in a unified loss function to be minimized within a network, which leads to better alignment of the training domains. The network parameters are further enforced to learn generalized features under domain shift, in a model-agnostic learning pipeline. Unlike the recent work of Meta Face Recognition [18], our method does not require careful hard-pair sample mining and filtering strategy during training. Extensive experiments on various face recognition benchmarks show the superiority of our method in handling variations, compared to baseline and the state-of-the-art methods.

Improving Face Recognition by Clustering Unlabeled Faces in the Wild

While deep face recognition has benefited significantly from large-scale labeled data, current research is focused on leveraging unlabeled data to further boost performance, reducing the cost of human annotation. Prior work has mostly been in controlled settings, where the labeled and unlabeled data sets have no overlapping identities by construction. This is not realistic in large-scale face recognition, where one must contend with such overlaps, the frequency of which increases with the volume of data. Ignoring identity overlap leads to significant labeling noise, as data from the same identity is split into multiple clusters. To address this, we propose a novel identity separation method based on extreme value theory. It is formulated as an out-of-distribution detection algorithm, and greatly reduces the problems caused by overlapping-identity label noise. Considering cluster assignments as pseudo-labels, we must also overcome the labeling noise from clustering errors. We propose a modulation of the cosine loss, where the modulation weights correspond to an estimate of clustering uncertainty. Extensive experiments on both controlled and real settings demonstrate our method’s consistent improvements over supervised baselines, e.g., 11.6% improvement on IJB-A verification.

Improving Face Recognition by Clustering Unlabeled Faces in the Wild (arXiv)

Read Improving Face Recognition by Clustering Unlabeled Faces in the Wild (arXiv). While deep face recognition has benefited significantly from large scale labeled data, current research is focused on leveraging unlabeled data to further boost performance, reducing the cost of human annotation. Prior work has mostly been in controlled settings, where the labeled and unlabeled data sets have no overlapping identities by construction. This is not realistic in large scale face recognition, where one must contend with such overlaps, the frequency of which increases with the volume of data. Ignoring identity overlap leads to significant labeling noise, as data from the same identity is split into multiple clusters. To address this, we propose a novel identity separation method based on extreme value theory. It is formulated as an out of distribution detection algorithm, and greatly reduces the problems caused by overlapping identity label noise. Considering cluster assignments as pseudo labels, we must also overcome the labeling noise from clustering errors. We propose a modulation of the cosine loss, where the modulation weights correspond to an estimate of clustering uncertainty. Extensive experiments on both controlled and real settings demonstrate our method’s consistent improvements over supervised baselines, e.g., 11.6% improvement on IJB A verification.

Towards Universal Representation Learning for Deep Face Recognition

Towards Universal Representation Learning for Deep Face Recognition Recognizing wild faces is extremely hard as they appear with all kinds of variations. Traditional methods either train with specifically annotated variation data from target domains, or by introducing unlabeled target variation data to adapt from the training data. Instead, we propose a universal representation learning framework that can deal with larger variation unseen in the given training data without leveraging target domain knowledge. We firstly synthesize training data alongside some semantically meaningful variations, such as low resolution, occlusion and head pose. However, directly feeding the augmented data for training will not converge well as the newly introduced samples are mostly hard examples. We propose to split the feature embedding into multiple sub-embeddings, and associate different confidence values for each sub-embedding to smooth the training procedure. The sub-embeddings are further decorrelated by regularizing variation classification loss and variation adversarial loss on different partitions of them. Experiments show that our method achieves top performance on general face recognition datasets such as LFW and MegaFace, while significantly better on extreme benchmarks such as TinyFace and IJB-S.

Unsupervised Domain Adaptation for Distance Metric Learning

Unsupervised Domain Adaptation for Distance Metric Learning Unsupervised domain adaptation is a promising avenue to enhance the performance of deep neural networks on a target domain, using labels only from a source domain. However, the two predominant methods, domain discrepancy reduction learning and semi-supervised learning, are not readily applicable when source and target domains do not share a common label space. This paper addresses the above scenario by learning a representation space that retains discriminative power on both the (labeled) source and (unlabeled) target domains while keeping representations for the two domains well-separated. Inspired by a theoretical analysis, we first reformulate the disjoint classification task, where the source and target domains correspond to non-overlapping class labels, to a verification one. To handle both within and cross domain verifications, we propose a Feature Transfer Network (FTN) to separate the target feature space from the original source space while aligned with a transformed source space. Moreover, we present a non-parametric multi-class entropy minimization loss to further boost the discriminative power of FTNs on the target domain. In experiments, we first illustrate how FTN works in a controlled setting of adapting from MNIST-M to MNIST with disjoint digit classes between the two domains and then demonstrate the effectiveness of FTNs through state-of-the-art performances on a cross-ethnicity face recognition problem.

Unsupervised Cross Domain Distance Metric Adaptation with Feature Transfer Network

Unsupervised Cross Domain Distance Metric Adaptation with Feature Transfer Network Unsupervised domain adaptation is an attractive avenue to enhance the performance of deep neural networks in a target domain, using labels only from a source domain. However, two predominant methods along this line, namely, domain divergence reduction learning and semi-supervised learning, are not readily applicable when the source and target domains do not share a common label space. This paper addresses the above scenario by learning a representation space that retains discriminative power on both the (labeled) source and (unlabeled) target domains while keeping the representations for the two domains well-separated. Inspired by a theoretical error bound on the target domain, we first reformulate the disjoint classification, where the source and target domains correspond to non-overlapping class labels, to a verification task. To handle both within-domain and cross-domain verification tasks, we propose a Feature Transfer Network (FTN) that separates the target features from the source features while simultaneously aligning the target features with a transformed source feature space. Moreover, we present a non-parametric variation of multi-class entropy minimization loss to further boost the discriminative power of FTNs on the target domain. In experiments, we demonstrate the effectiveness of FTNs through state-of-the-art performances on a cross-ethnicity face recognition problem.