Generalization refers to the ability of a trained model to perform well on new, unseen data that it hasn’t encountered during training. It is a measure of how well the model has learned the underlying patterns and relationships from the training data and how effectively it can apply that knowledge to make accurate predictions or classifications on new, previously unseen examples.

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Self-Consistent Decoding for More Factual Open Responses

Self-consistency has emerged as a powerful method for improving the accuracy of short answers generated by large language models. As previously defined, it only concerns the accuracy of a final answer parsed from generated text. In this work, we extend the idea to open response generation, by integrating voting into the decoding method. Each output sentence is selected from among multiple samples, conditioning on the previous selections, based on a simple token overlap score. We compare this “Sample & Select” method to greedy decoding, beam search, nucleus sampling, and the recently introduced hallucination avoiding decoders of DoLa, P-CRR, and S-CRR. We show that Sample & Select improves factuality by a 30% relative margin against these decoders in NLI-based evaluation on the subsets of CNN/DM and XSum used in the FRANK benchmark, while maintaining comparable ROUGE-1 F1 scores against reference summaries. We collect human verifications of the generated summaries, confirming the factual superiority of our method.

Improving Language-Based Object Detection by Explicit Generation of Negative Examples

The recent progress in language-based object detection with an open-vocabulary can be largely attributed to finding better ways of leveraging large-scale data with free-form text annotations. Training from image captions with grounded bounding boxes (ground truth or pseudo-labeled) enable the models to reason over an open-vocabulary and understand object descriptions in free-form text. In this work, we investigate the role of negative captions for training such language-based object detectors. While the fixed label space in standard object detection datasets clearly defines the set of negative classes, the free-form text used for language-based detection makes the space of potential negatives virtually infinite in size. We propose to leverage external knowledge bases and large-language-models to automatically generate contradictions for each caption in the training dataset. Furthermore, we leverage image-generate tools to create corresponding negative images to the contradicting caption. Such automatically generated data constitute hard negative examples for language-based detection and improve the model when trained from. Our experiments demonstrate the benefits of the automatically generated training data on two complex benchmarks.