Hybrid Beamforming is a technique used in wireless communication systems, particularly in millimeter-wave (mmWave) and massive MIMO (Multiple-Input, Multiple-Output) setups, to efficiently manage the trade-off between beamforming performance and hardware complexity. It combines the advantages of both digital beamforming and analog beamforming to achieve high spectral efficiency and coverage in wireless networks.

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Channel Reciprocity Calibration for Hybrid Beamforming in Distributed MIMO Systems

Channel Reciprocity Calibration for Hybrid Beamforming in Distributed MIMO Systems Time Division Duplex (TDD)-based distributed massive MIMO systems are envisioned as candidate solution for the physical layer of 6G multi-antenna systems supporting cooperative hybrid beamforming that heavily relies on the obtained uplink channel estimates for efficient coherent downlink precoding. However, due to the hardware impairment between the transmitter and the receiver, full channel reciprocity does not hold between the downlink and uplink direction. Such reciprocity mismatch deteriorates the performance of mm-Wave hybrid beamforming and has to be estimated and compensated for, to avoid performance degradation in the co-operative hybrid beamforming. In this paper, we address the channel reciprocity calibration between any two nodes at two levels. We decompose the problem into two sub-problems. In the first sub-problem, we calibrate the digital chain, i.e. obtain the mismatch coefficients of the (DAC/ADC) up to a constant scaling factor. In the second subproblem, we obtain the (PA/LNA) mismatch coefficients. At each step, we formulate the channel reciprocity calibration as a least square optimization problem that can efficiently be solved via conventional methods such as alternative optimization with high accuracy. Finally, we verify the performance of our channel reciprocity calibration approach through extensive numerical experiments.

Codebook Design for Hybrid Beamforming in 5G Systems

Codebook Design for Hybrid Beamforming in 5G Systems Massive MIMO and hybrid beamforming are among the key physical layer technologies for the next generation wireless systems. In the last stage of the hybrid beamforming, the goal is to generate sharp beam with maximal and preferably uniform gain. We highlight the shortcomings of uniform linear arrays (ULAs) in generating such perfect beams, i.e., beams with maximal uniform gain and sharp edges, and propose a solution based on a novel antenna configuration, namely, twin-ULA (TULA). Consequently, we propose two antenna configurations based on TULA: Delta and Star. We pose the problem of finding the beamforming coefficients as a continuous optimization problem for which we find the analytical closed-form solution by a quantization/aggregation method. Thanks to the derived closed-form solution the beamforming coefficients can be easily obtained with low complexity. Through numerical analysis, we illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed antenna structure and beamforming algorithm to reach close-to-perfect beams.

Codebook Design for Composite Beamforming in Next-generation mmWave Systems

In pursuance of the unused spectrum in higher frequencies, millimeter wave (mmWave) bands have a pivotal role. However, the high path-loss and poor scattering associated with mmWave communications highlight the necessity of employing effective beamforming techniques. In order to efficiently search for the beam to serve a user and to jointly serve multiple users it is often required to use a composite beam which consists of multiple disjoint lobes. A composite beam covers multiple desired angular coverage intervals (ACIs) and ideally has maximum and uniform gain (smoothness) within each desired ACI, negligible gain (leakage) outside the desired ACIs, and sharp edges. We propose an algorithm for designing such ideal composite codebook by providing an analytical closed-form solution with low computational complexity. There is a fundamental trade-off between the gain, leakage and smoothness of the beams. Our design allows to achieve different values in such trade-off based on changing the design parameters. We highlight the shortcomings of the uniform linear arrays (ULAs) in building arbitrary composite beams. Consequently, we use a recently introduced twin-ULA (TULA) antenna structure to effectively resolve these inefficiencies. Numerical results are used to validate the theoretical findings.

Multi-user Beam Alignment in Presence of Multi-path

Multi-user Beam Alignment in Presence of Multi-path To overcome the high pathloss and the intense shadowing in millimeterwave (mmWave) communications, effective beamforming schemes are required which incorporate narrow beams with high beamforming gains. The mm Wave channel consists of a few spatial clusters each associated with an angle of departure (AoD). The narrow beams must be aligned with the channel AoDs to increase the beamforming gain. This is achieved through a procedure called beam alignment (BA). Most of the BA schemes in the literature consider channels with a single dominant path while in practice the channel has a few resolvable paths with different AoDs, hence, such BA schemes may not work correctly in the presence of multi-path or at the least do not exploit such multi path to achieve diversity or increase robustness. In this paper, we propose an efficient BA schemes in presence of multi-path. The proposed BA scheme transmits probing packets using a set of scanning beams and receives the feedback for all the scanning beams at the end of probing phase from each user. We formulate the BA scheme as minimizing the expected value of the average transmission beamwidth under different policies. The policy is defined as a function from the set of received feedback to the set of transmission beams (TB). In order to maximize the number of possible feedback sequences, we prove that the set of scanning beams (SB) has an special form, namely, Tulip Design. Consequently, we rewrite the minimization problem with a set of linear constraints and reduced number of variables which is solved by using an efficient greedy algorithm.

Codebook Design for Composite Beamforming in Next generation mmWave Systems

In pursuance of the unused spectrum in higher frequencies, millimeter wave (mmWave) bands have a pivotal role. However, the high path loss and poor scattering associated with mmWave communications highlight the necessity of employing effective beamforming techniques. In order to efficiently search for the beam to serve a user and to jointly serve multiple users it is often required to use a composite beam which consists of multiple disjoint lobes. A composite beam covers multiple desired angular coverage intervals (ACIs) and ideally has maximum and uniform gain (smoothness) within each desired ACI, negligible gain (leakage) outside the desired ACIs, and sharp edges. We propose an algorithm for designing such ideal composite codebook by providing an analytical closed form solution with low computational complexity. There is a fundamental trade off between the gain, leakage and smoothness of the beams. Our design allows to achieve different values in such trade off based on changing the design parameters. We highlight the shortcomings of the uniform linear arrays (ULAs) in building arbitrary composite beams. Consequently, we use a recently introduced twin ULA (TULA) antenna structure to effectively resolve these inefficiencies. Numerical results are used to validate the theoretical findings.

Multi user Beam Alignment in Presence of Multi path

Multi user Beam Alignment in Presence of Multi path To overcome the high path loss and the intense shadowing in millimeter wave (mmWave) communications, effective beamforming schemes are required which incorporate narrow beams with high beamforming gains. The mmWave channel consists of a few spatial clusters each associated with an angle of departure (AoD). The narrow beams must be aligned with the channel AoDs to increase the beamforming gain. This is achieved through a procedure called beam alignment (BA). Most of the BA schemes in the literature consider channels with a single dominant path while in practice the channel has a few resolvable paths with different AoDs, hence, such BA schemes may not work correctly in the presence of multi path or at the least do not exploit such multipath to achieve diversity or increase robustness. In this paper, we propose an efficient BA scheme in presence of multi path. The proposed BA scheme transmits probing packets using a set of scanning beams and receives feedback for all the scanning beams at the end of the probing phase from each user. We formulate the BA scheme as minimizing the expected value of the average transmission beamwidth under different policies. The policy is defined as a function from the set of received feedback to the set of transmission beams (TB). In order to maximize the number of possible feedback sequences, we prove that the set of scanning beams (SB) has a special form, namely, Tulip Design. Consequently, we rewrite the minimization problem with a set of linear constraints and a reduced number of variables which is solved by using an efficient greedy algorithm.