Jian Fang NEC Labs America

Jian Fang


Optical Networking & Sensing


Distributed Fiber-Optic Sensor as an Acoustic Communication Receiver Array

A novel acoustic transmission technique using distributed acoustic sensors is introduced. By choosing better incident angles for smaller fading and employing an 8- channel beamformer, over 10KB data is transmitted at a 6.4kbps data rate.

OFDM Signal Transmission Using Distributed Fiber-Optic Acoustic Sensing

Acoustic data transmission with the Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) signal has been demonstrated using a Distributed Acoustic Sensor (DAS) based on Phase-sensitive Optical Time-Domain Reflectometry (?-OTDR).

Real-time Intrusion Detection and Impulsive Acoustic Event Classification with Fiber Optic Sensing and Deep Learning Technologies over Telecom Networks

We review various use cases of distributed-fiber-optic-sensing and machine-learning technologies that offer advantages to telecom fiber networks on existing fiber infrastructures. Byleveraging an edge-AI platform, perimeter intrusion detection and impulsive acoustic event classification can be performed locally on-the-fly, ensuring real-time detection with low latency.

Drone Detection and Localization using Enhanced Fiber-Optic Acoustic Sensor and Distributed Acoustic Sensing Technology

In recent years, the widespread use of drones has led to serious concerns about safety and privacy. Drone detection using microphone arrays has proven to be a promising method. However, it is challenging for microphones to serve large-scale applications due to the issues of synchronization, complexity, and data management. Moreover, distributed acoustic sensing (DAS) using optical fibers has demonstrated its advantages in monitoring vibrations over long distances but does not have the necessary sensitivity for weak airborne acoustics. In this work, we present, to the best of our knowledge, the first fiber-optic quasi-distributed acoustic sensing demonstration for drone surveillance. We develop enhanced fiber-optic acoustic sensors (FOASs) for DAS to detect drone sound. The FOAS shows an ultra-high measured sensitivity of −101.21 re. 1rad/µPa, as well as the capability for high-fidelity speech recovery. A single DAS can interrogate a series of FOASs over a long distance via optical fiber, enabling intrinsic synchronization and centralized signal processing.We demonstrate the field test of drone detection and localization by concatenating four FOASs as DAS. Both the waveforms and spectral features of the drone sound are recognized. With acoustic field mapping and data fusion, accurate drone localization is achieved with a root-mean-square error (RMSE) of 1.47 degrees. This approach holds great potential in large-scale sound detection applications, such as drone detection or city event monitoring.

Using Global Fiber Networks for Environmental Sensing

We review recent advances in distributed fiber optic sensing (DFOS) and their applications. The scattering mechanisms in glass, which are exploited for reflectometry-based DFOS, are Rayleigh, Brillouin, and Raman scatterings. These are sensitive to either strain and/or temperature, allowing optical fiber cables to monitor their ambient environment in addition to their conventional role as a medium for telecommunications. Recently, DFOS leveraged technologies developed for telecommunications, such as coherent detection, digital signal processing, coding, and spatial/frequency diversity, to achieve improved performance in terms of measurand resolution, reach, spatial resolution, and bandwidth. We review the theory and architecture of commonly used DFOS methods. We provide recent experimental and field trial results where DFOS was used in wide-ranging applications, such as geohazard monitoring, seismic monitoring, traffic monitoring, and infrastructure health monitoring. Events of interest often have unique signatures either in the spatial, temporal, frequency, or wavenumber domains. Based on the temperature and strain raw data obtained from DFOS, downstream postprocessing allows the detection, classification, and localization of events. Combining DFOS with machine learning methods, it is possible to realize complete sensor systems that are compact, low cost, and can operate in harsh environments and difficult-to-access locations, facilitating increased public safety and smarter cities.

Distributed Optical Fiber Sensing Using Specialty Optical Fibers

Distributed fiber optic sensing systems use long section of optical fiber as the sensing media. Therefore, the fiber characteristics determines the sensing capability and performance. In this presentation, various types of specialty optical fibers and their sensing applications will be introduced and discussed.

Field Trials of Vibration Detection, Localization and Classification over Deployed Telecom Fiber Cables

We review sensing fusion results of integrating fiber sensing with video for machine-learning-based localization and classification of impulsive acoustic event detection. Classification accuracy >97% was achieved on aerial coils, and >99% using fiber-based signal enhancers.

Evolution of Fiber Infrastructure – From Data Transmission to Network Sensing

We review multiple use cases over deployed networks including co-existing sensing/data transmission, cable cut prevention and perimeter intrusion detection to realize telecom infrastructure can be sensing backbones instead of the sole function of data transmission.

Field Tests of Impulsive Acoustic Event Detection, Localization, and Classification Over Telecom Fiber Networks

We report distributed-fiber-optic-sensing results on impulsive acoustic events localization/classification over telecom networks. A deep-learning-based model was trained to classify starter-gun and fireworks signatures with high accuracy of > 99% using fiber-based-signal-enhancer and >97% using aerial coils.

Template Matching Method with Distributed Acoustic Sensing Data and Simulation Data

We propose a new method to detect acoustic signals by matching distributed acoustic sensing data with simulation. In the simulation of the dynamic strain on an optical fiber, the optical fiber layouts and the gauge length are properly incorporated. We apply the proposed method to the acoustic-source localization and demonstrate the method localizes the source accurately even under the layouts which include the straight optical fiber for the sensing points with the large gauge-length settings.