Retrieval, Analogy, and Composition: A framework for Compositional Generalization in Image Captioning

Retrieval, Analogy, and Composition: A framework for Compositional Generalization in Image Captioning Image captioning systems are expected to have the ability to combine individual concepts when describing scenes with concept combinations that are not observed during training. In spite of significant progress in image captioning with the help of the autoregressive generation framework, current approaches fail to generalize well to novel concept combinations. We propose a new framework that revolves around probing several similar image caption training instances (retrieval), performing analogical reasoning over relevant entities in retrieved prototypes (analogy), and enhancing the generation process with reasoning outcomes (composition). Our method augments the generation model by referring to the neighboring instances in the training set to produce novel concept combinations in generated captions. We perform experiments on the widely used image captioning benchmarks. The proposed models achieve substantial improvement over the compared baselines on both composition-related evaluation metrics and conventional image captioning metrics.

Disentangled Recurrent Wasserstein Auto-Encoder

Disentangled Recurrent Wasserstein Auto-Encoder Learning disentangled representations leads to interpretable models and facilitates data generation with style transfer, which has been extensively studied on static data such as images in an unsupervised learning framework. However, only a few works have explored unsupervised disentangled sequential representation learning due to challenges of generating sequential data. In this paper, we propose recurrent Wasserstein Autoencoder (R-WAE), a new framework for generative modeling of sequential data. R-WAE disentangles the representation of an input sequence into static and dynamic factors (i.e., time-invariant and time-varying parts). Our theoretical analysis shows that, R-WAE minimizes an upper bound of a penalized form of the Wasserstein distance between model distribution and sequential data distribution, and simultaneously maximizes the mutual information between input data and different disentangled latent factors, respectively. This is superior to (recurrent) VAE which does not explicitly enforce mutual information maximization between input data and disentangled latent representations. When the number of actions in sequential data is available as weak supervision information, R-WAE is extended to learn a categorical latent representation of actions to improve its disentanglement. Experiments on a variety of datasets show that our models outperform other baselines with the same settings in terms of disentanglement and unconditional video generation both quantitatively and qualitatively.