Network Embedding is a technique that involves representing nodes and edges of a network in a continuous vector space. The primary goal of network embedding is to capture the structural and relational information within the network in a way that is suitable for downstream machine learning tasks. Network embeddings are valuable for tasks where understanding the relationships and proximity between entities in a network is crucial. The learned embeddings can be leveraged for more efficient and effective processing of graph-structured data, facilitating the application of algorithms to complex networked systems.


Self-Attentive Attributed Network Embedding Through Adversarial Learning

Network embedding aims to learn the low-dimensional representations/embeddings of vertices which preserve the structure and inherent properties of the networks. The resultant embeddings are beneficial to downstream tasks such as vertex classification and link prediction. A vast majority of real-world networks are coupled with a rich set of vertex attributes, which could be potentially complementary in learning better embeddings. Existing attributed network embedding models, with shallow or deep architectures, typically seek to match the representations in topology space and attribute space for each individual vertex by assuming that the samples from the two spaces are drawn uniformly. The assumption, however, can hardly be guaranteed in practice. Due to the intrinsic sparsity of sampled vertex sequences and incompleteness in vertex attributes, the discrepancy between the attribute space and the network topology space inevitably exists. Furthermore, the interactions among vertex attributes, a.k.a cross features, have been largely ignored by existing approaches. To address the above issues, in this paper, we propose Nettention, a self-attentive network embedding approach that can efficiently learn vertex embeddings on attributed network. Instead of sample-wise optimization, Nettention aggregates the two types of information through minimizing the difference between the representation distributions in the low-dimensional topology and attribute spaces. The joint inference is encapsulated in a generative adversarial training process, yielding better generalization performance and robustness. The learned distributions consider both locality-preserving and global reconstruction constraints which can be inferred from the learning of the adversarially regularized autoencoders. Additionally, a multi-head self-attention module is developed to explicitly model the attribute interactions. Extensive experiments on benchmark datasets have verified the effectiveness of the proposed Nettention model on a variety of tasks, including vertex classification and link prediction.

Learning Deep Network Representations with Adversarially Regularized Autoencoders

The problem of network representation learning, also known as network embedding, arises in many machine learning tasks assuming that there exist a small number of variabilities in the vertex representations which can capture the “semantics” of the original network structure. Most existing network embedding models, with shallow or deep architectures, learn vertex representations from the sampled vertex sequences such that the low-dimensional embeddings preserve the locality property and/or global reconstruction capability. The resultant representations, however, are difficult for model generalization due to the intrinsic sparsity of sampled sequences from the input network. As such, an ideal approach to address the problem is to generate vertex representations by learning a probability density function over the sampled sequences. However, in many cases, such a distribution in a low-dimensional manifold may not always have an analytic form. In this study, we propose to learn the network representations with adversarially regularized autoencoders (NetRA). NetRA learns smoothly regularized vertex representations that well capture the network structure through jointly considering both locality-preserving and global reconstruction constraints. The joint inference is encapsulated in a generative adversarial training process to circumvent the requirement of an explicit prior distribution, and thus obtains better generalization performance. We demonstrate empirically how well key properties of the network structure are captured and the effectiveness of NetRA on a variety of tasks, including network reconstruction, link prediction, and multi-label classification.