Improving Pseudo Labels for Open-Vocabulary Object Detection

Improving Pseudo Labels for Open-Vocabulary Object Detection Recent studies show promising performance in open-vocabulary object detection (OVD) using pseudo labels (PLs) from pretrained vision and language models (VLMs). However, PLs generated by VLMs are extremely noisy due to the gap between the pretraining objective of VLMs and OVD, which blocks further advances on PLs. In this paper, we aim to reduce the noise in PLs and propose a method called online Self-training And a Split-and-fusion head for OVD (SAS-Det). First, the self-training finetunes VLMs to generate high quality PLs while prevents forgetting the knowledge learned in the pretraining. Second, a split-and-fusion (SAF) head is designed to remove the noise in localization of PLs, which is usually ignored in existing methods. It also fuses complementary knowledge learned from both precise ground truth and noisy pseudo labels to boost the performance. Extensive experiments demonstrate SAS-Det is both efficient and effective. Our pseudo labeling is 3 times faster than prior methods. SAS-Det outperforms prior state-of-the-art models of the same scale by a clear margin and achieves 37.4 AP50 and 27.3 APr on novel categories of the COCO and LVIS benchmarks, respectively.

Real-time ConcealedWeapon Detection on 3D Radar Images forWalk-through Screening System

Real-time ConcealedWeapon Detection on 3D Radar Images forWalk-through Screening System This paper presents a framework for real-time concealed weapon detection (CWD) on 3D radar images for walk-through screening systems. The walk-through screening system aims to ensure security in crowded areas by performing CWD on walking persons, hence it requires an accurate and real-time detection approach. To ensure accuracy, a weapon needs to be detected irrespective of its 3D orientation, thus we use the 3D radar images as detection input. For achieving real-time, we reformulate classic U-Net based segmentation networks to perform 3D detection tasks. Our 3D segmentation network predicts peak-shaped probability map, instead of voxel-wise masks, to enable position inference by elementary peak detection operation on the predicted map. In the peak-shaped probability map, the peak marks the weapon’s position. So, weapon detection task translates to peak detection on the probability map. A Gaussian function is used to model weapons in the probability map. We experimentally validate our approach on realistic 3D radar images obtained from a walk-through weapon screening system prototype. Extensive ablation studies verify the effectiveness of our proposed approach over existing conventional approaches. The experimental results demonstrate that our proposed approach can perform accurate and real-time CWD, thus making it suitable for practical applications of walk-through screening.

Exploiting Unlabeled Data with Vision and Language Models for Object Detection

Exploiting Unlabeled Data with Vision and Language Models for Object Detection Building robust and generic object detection frameworks requires scaling to larger label spaces and bigger training datasets. However, it is prohibitively costly to acquire annotations for thousands of categories at a large scale. We propose a novel method that leverages the rich semantics available in recent vision and language models to localize and classify objects in unlabeled images, effectively generating pseudo labels for object detection. Starting with a generic and class agnostic region proposal mechanism, we use vision and language models to categorize each region of an image into any object category that is required for downstream tasks. We demonstrate the value of the generated pseudo labels in two specific tasks, open vocabulary detection, where a model needs to generalize to unseen object categories, and semi supervised object detection, where additional unlabeled images can be used to improve the model. Our empirical evaluation shows the effectiveness of the pseudo labels in both tasks, where we outperform competitive baselines and achieve a novel state of the art for open vocabulary object detection. Our code is available at PLM.

Object Detection with a Unified Label Space from Multiple Datasets

Object Detection with a Unified Label Space from Multiple Datasets Given multiple datasets with different label spaces, the goal of this work is to train a single object detector predicting over the union of all the label spaces. The practical benefits of such an object detector are obvious and significant—application-relevant categories can be picked and merged form arbitrary existing datasets. However, naive merging of datasets is not possible in this case, due to inconsistent object annotations. Consider an object category like faces that is annotated in one dataset, but is not annotated in another dataset, although the object itself appears in the later’s images. Some categories, like face here, would thus be considered foreground in one dataset, but background in another. To address this challenge, we design a framework which works with such partial annotations, and we exploit a pseudo labeling approach that we adapt for our specific case. We propose loss functions that carefully integrate partial but correct annotations with complementary but noisy pseudo labels. Evaluation in the proposed novel setting requires full annotation on the test set. We collect the required annotations and define a new challenging experimental setup for this task based on existing public datasets. We show improved performances compared to competitive baselines and appropriate adaptations of existing work