QoS (Quality of Service) refers to the set of technologies, policies, and mechanisms implemented in a network to ensure that the performance and delivery of services meet specific standards and expectations.


5GLoR: 5G LAN Orchestration for Enterprise IoT Applications

5G-LAN is an enterprise local area network (LAN) that leverages 5G technology for wireless connectivity instead of WiFi. 5G technology is unique: it uses network slicing to distinguish customers in the same traffic class using new QoS technologies in the RF domain. This unique ability is not supported by most enterprise LANs, which rely primarily on DiffServ-like technologies that distinguish among traffic classes rather than customers. We first show that this mismatch in QoS between the 5G network and the LAN affects the accuracy of insights from the LAN-resident analytics applications. We systematically analyze the root causes of the QoS mismatch and propose a first-of-a-kind 5G-LAN orchestrator (5GLoR). 5GLoR is a middleware that applications can use to preserve the QoS of their 5G data streams through the enterprise LAN. In most cases, the loss of QoS is not due to the oversubscription of LAN switches but primarily due to the inefficient assignment of 5G data to queues at ingress and egress ports. 5GLoR periodically analyzes the status of these queues, provides suitable DSCP identifiers to the application, and installs relevant switch re-write rules (to change DSCP identifiers between switches) to continuously preserve the QoS of the 5G data through the LAN. 5GLoR improves the RTP frame level delay and inter-frame delay by 212% and 122%, respectively, for the WebRTC application. Additionally, with 5GLoR, the accuracy of two example applications (face detection and recognition) improved by 33%, while the latency was reduced by about 25%. Our experiments show that the performance (accuracy and latency) of applications on a 5G-LAN performs well with the proposed 5GLoR compared to the same applications on MEC. This is significant because 5G-LAN offers an order of magnitude more computing, networking, and storage resources to the applications than the resource-constrained MEC, and mature enterprise technologies can be used to deploy, manage, and update IoT applications.

SmartSlice: Dynamic, Self-optimization of Application’s QoS requests to 5G networks

Applications can tailor a network slice by specifying a variety of QoS attributes related to application-specific performance, function or operation. However, some QoS attributes like guaranteed bandwidth required by the application do vary over time. For example, network bandwidth needs of video streams from surveillance cameras can vary a lot depending on the environmental conditions and the content in the video streams. In this paper, we propose a novel, dynamic QoS attribute prediction technique that assists any application to make optimal resource reservation requests at all times. Standard forecasting using traditional cost functions like MAE, MSE, RMSE, MDA, etc. don’t work well because they do not take into account the direction (whether the forecasting of resources is more or less than needed), magnitude (by how much the forecast deviates, and in which direction), or frequency (how many times the forecast deviates from actual needs, and in which direction). The direction, magnitude and frequency have a direct impact on the application’s accuracy of insights, and the operational costs. We propose a new, parameterized cost function that takes into account all three of them, and guides the design of a new prediction technique. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first work that considers time-varying application requirements and dynamically adjusts slice QoS requests to 5G networks in order to ensure a balance between application’s accuracy and operational costs. In a real-world deployment of a surveillance video analytics application over 17 cameras, we show that our technique outperforms other traditional forecasting methods, and it saves 34% of network bandwidth (over a ~24 hour period) when compared to a static, one-time reservation.