Sensor Modeling involves creating mathematical or computational representations of sensor behavior. These models help predict how sensors will respond to different inputs or conditions


Enhancing Video Analytics Accuracy via Real-time Automated Camera Parameter Tuning

In Video Analytics Pipelines (VAP), Analytics Units (AUs) such as object detection and face recognition running on remote servers critically rely on surveillance cameras to capture high-quality video streams in order to achieve high accuracy. Modern IP cameras come with a large number of camera parameters that directly affect the quality of the video stream capture. While a few of such parameters, e.g., exposure, focus, white balance are automatically adjusted by the camera internally, the remaining ones are not. We denote such camera parameters as non-automated (NAUTO) parameters. In this paper, we first show that environmental condition changes can have significant adverse effect on the accuracy of insights from the AUs, but such adverse impact can potentially be mitigated by dynamically adjusting NAUTO camera parameters in response to changes in environmental conditions. We then present CamTuner, to our knowledge, the first framework that dynamically adapts NAUTO camera parameters to optimize the accuracy of AUs in a VAP in response to adverse changes in environmental conditions. CamTuner is based on SARSA reinforcement learning and it incorporates two novel components: a light-weight analytics quality estimator and a virtual camera that drastically speed up offline RL training. Our controlled experiments and real-world VAP deployment show that compared to a VAP using the default camera setting, CamTuner enhances VAP accuracy by detecting 15.9% additional persons and 2.6%–4.2% additional cars (without any false positives) in a large enterprise parking lot and 9.7% additional cars in a 5G smart traffic intersection scenario, which enables a new usecase of accurate and reliable automatic vehicle collision prediction (AVCP). CamTuner opens doors for new ways to significantly enhance video analytics accuracy beyond incremental improvements from refining deep-learning models.

CamTuner: Reinforcement Learning based System for Camera Parameter Tuning to enhance Analytics

Video analytics systems critically rely on video cameras, which capture high quality video frames, to achieve high analytics accuracy. Although modern video cameras often expose tens of configurable parameter settings that can be set by end users, deployment of surveillance cameras today often uses a fixed set of parameter settings because the end users lack the skill or understanding to reconfigure these parameters. In this paper, we first show that in a typical surveillance camera deployment, environmental condition changes can significantly affect the accuracy of analytics units such as person detection, face detection and face recognition, and how such adverse impact can be mitigated by dynamically adjusting camera settings. We then propose CAMTUNER, a framework that can be easily applied to an existing video analytics pipeline (VAP) to enable automatic and dynamic adaptation of complex camera settings to changing environmental conditions, and autonomously optimize the accuracy of analytics units (AUs) in the VAP. CAMTUNER is based on SARSA reinforcement learning (RL) and it incorporates two novel components: a light weight analytics quality estimator and a virtual camera. CAMTUNER is implemented in a system with AXIS surveillance cameras and several VAPs (with various AUs) that processed day long customer videos captured at airport entrances. Our evaluations show that CAMTUNER can adapt quickly to changing environments. We compared CAMTUNER with two alternative approaches where either static camera settings were used, or a strawman approach where camera settings were manually changed every hour (based on human perception of quality). We observed that for the face detection and person detection AUs, CAMTUNER is able to achieve up to 13.8% and 9.2% higher accuracy, respectively, compared to the best of the two approaches (average improvement of 8% for both AUs).