Simulation refers to the process of generating synthetic data that mimics the characteristics and structure of real-world data. This artificial data is created to resemble actual data in terms of statistical properties, distributions, and patterns, but it is not obtained from real observations or measurements. Simulated datasets are often used for various purposes in research, machine learning, and data analysis when real data is unavailable, insufficient, or when there are privacy concerns.


LidaRF: Delving into Lidar for Neural Radiance Field on Street Scenes

Photorealistic simulation plays a crucial role in applications such as autonomous driving, where advances in neural radiance fields (NeRFs) may allow better scalability through the automatic creation of digital 3D assets. However, reconstruction quality suffers on street scenes due to largely collinear camera motions and sparser samplings at higher speeds. On the other hand, the application often demands rendering from camera views that deviate from the inputs to accurately simulate behaviors like lane changes. In this paper, we propose several insights that allow a better utilization of Lidar data to improve NeRF quality on street scenes. First, our framework learns a geometric scene representation from Lidar, which are fused with the implicit grid-based representation for radiance decoding, thereby supplying strongergeometric information offered by explicit point cloud. Second, we put forth a robust occlusion-aware depth supervision scheme, which allows utilizing densified Lidar points by accumulation. Third, we generate augmented training views from Lidar points for further improvement. Our insights translate to largely improved novel view synthesis under real driving scenes.

AIDE: An Automatic Data Engine for Object Detection in Autonomous Driving

Autonomous vehicle (AV) systems rely on robust perception models as a cornerstone of safety assurance. However, objects encountered on the road exhibit a long-tailed distribution, with rare or unseen categories posing challenges to a deployed perception model. This necessitates an expensive process of continuously curating and annotating data with significant human effort. We propose to leverage recent advances in vision-language and large language models to design an Automatic Data Engine (AIDE) that automatically identifies issues, efficiently curates data, improves the model through auto-labeling, and verifies the model through generation of diverse scenarios. This process operates iteratively, allowing for continuous self-improvement of the model. We further establish a benchmark for open-world detection on AV datasets to comprehensively evaluate various learning paradigms, demonstrating our method’s superior performance at a reduced cost.

SMART: Simultaneous Multi-Agent Recurrent Trajectory Prediction

We propose advances that address two key challenges in future trajectory prediction: (i) multimodality in both training data and predictions and (ii) constant time inference regardless of number of agents. Existing trajectory predictions are fundamentally limited by lack of diversity in training data, which is difficult to acquire with sufficient coverage of possible modes. Our first contribution is an automatic method to simulate diverse trajectories in the top-view. It uses pre-existing datasets and maps as initialization, mines existing trajectories to represent realistic driving behaviors and uses a multi-agent vehicle dynamics simulator to generate diverse new trajectories that cover various modes and are consistent with scene layout constraints. Our second contribution is a novel method that generates diverse predictions while accounting for scene semantics and multi-agent interactions, with constant-time inference independent of the number of agents. We propose a convLSTM with novel state pooling operations and losses to predict scene-consistent states of multiple agents in a single forward pass, along with a CVAE for diversity. We validate our proposed multi-agent trajectory prediction approach by training and testing on the proposed simulated dataset and existing real datasets of traffic scenes. In both cases, our approach outperforms SOTA methods by a large margin, highlighting the benefits of both our diverse dataset simulation and constant-time diverse trajectory prediction methods.”

A Dataset for High-Level 3D Scene Understanding of Complex Road Scenes in the Top-View

We introduce a novel dataset for high-level 3D scene understanding of complex road scenes. Our annotations extend the existing datasets KITTI [5] and nuScenes [1] with semantically and geometrically meaningful attributes like the number of lanes or the existence of, and distance to, intersections, sidewalks and crosswalks. Our attributes are rich enough to build a meaningful representation of the scene in the top-view and provide a tangible interface to the real world for several practical applications.

A Parametric Top-View Representation of Complex Road Scenes

In this paper, we address the problem of inferring the layout of complex road scenes given a single camera as input. To achieve that, we first propose a novel parameterized model of road layouts in a top-view representation, which is not only intuitive for human visualization but also provides an interpretable interface for higher-level decision making. Moreover, the design of our top-view scene model allows for efficient sampling and thus generation of large-scale simulated data, which we leverage to train a deep neural network to infer our scene model’s parameters. Specifically, our proposed training procedure uses supervised domain-adaptation techniques to incorporate both simulated as well as manually annotated data. Finally, we design a Conditional Random Field (CRF) that enforces coherent predictions for a single frame and encourages temporal smoothness among video frames. Experiments on two public data sets show that: (1) Our parametric top-view model is representative enough to describe complex road scenes; (2) The proposed method outperforms baselines trained on manually-annotated or simulated data only, thus getting the best of both; (3) Our CRF is able to generate temporally smoothed while semantically meaningful results.