Submarine Transmission refers to the transmission of signals, data, or power over or under the sea. This term can encompass various types of submarine systems, such as submarine communication cables for data transmission, submarine power cables for transmitting electrical power between offshore locations or islands, or other underwater transmission systems.


Estimation of Core-Cladding Concentricity Error From GAWBS Noise Spectrum

CCCE in a 60-km fiber is estimated from its GAWBS noise spectrum by comparing the TR 1m modes with the R 0m modes. The estimated CCCE value 0.73 μm is consistent with conventional measurements of 0.6–0.8 μm.