Thermal and Visual Imaging are two different technologies used for capturing and representing information from the electromagnetic spectrum.

Thermal imaging, also known as infrared imaging or thermography, involves the detection and capture of infrared radiation emitted by objects. It measures the heat radiated by surfaces and converts it into visible images.

Visual imaging refers to the capture and representation of images within the visible spectrum of light. It involves the use of cameras or sensors sensitive to the wavelengths of light that are visible to the human eye.

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F3S: Free Flow Fever Screening

F3S: Free Flow Fever Screening Identification of people with elevated body temperature can reduce or dramatically slow down the spread of infectious diseases like COVID-19. We present a novel fever-screening system, F 3 S, that uses edge machine learning techniques to accurately measure core body temperatures of multiple individuals in a free-flow setting. F 3 S performs real-time sensor fusion of visual camera with thermal camera data streams to detect elevated body temperature, and it has several unique features: (a) visual and thermal streams represent very different modalities, and we dynamically associate semantically-equivalent regions across visual and thermal frames by using a new, dynamic alignment technique that analyzes content and context in real-time, (b) we track people through occlusions, identify the eye (inner canthus), forehead, face and head regions where possible, and provide an accurate temperature reading by using a prioritized refinement algorithm, and (c) we robustly detect elevated body temperature even in the presence of personal protective equipment like masks, or sunglasses or hats, all of which can be affected by hot weather and lead to spurious temperature readings. F 3 S has been deployed at over a dozen large commercial establishments, providing contact-less, free-flow, real-time fever screening for thousands of employees and customers in indoors and outdoor settings.