A Uniform Linear Array (ULA) is a specific configuration of antenna elements arranged in a straight line with equal spacing between adjacent elements. This type of antenna array is commonly used in various communication and radar systems to achieve directional sensitivity, beamforming, and control over the radiation pattern.

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Codebook Design for Hybrid Beamforming in 5G Systems

Codebook Design for Hybrid Beamforming in 5G Systems Massive MIMO and hybrid beamforming are among the key physical layer technologies for the next generation wireless systems. In the last stage of the hybrid beamforming, the goal is to generate sharp beam with maximal and preferably uniform gain. We highlight the shortcomings of uniform linear arrays (ULAs) in generating such perfect beams, i.e., beams with maximal uniform gain and sharp edges, and propose a solution based on a novel antenna configuration, namely, twin-ULA (TULA). Consequently, we propose two antenna configurations based on TULA: Delta and Star. We pose the problem of finding the beamforming coefficients as a continuous optimization problem for which we find the analytical closed-form solution by a quantization/aggregation method. Thanks to the derived closed-form solution the beamforming coefficients can be easily obtained with low complexity. Through numerical analysis, we illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed antenna structure and beamforming algorithm to reach close-to-perfect beams.

Codebook Design for Composite Beamforming in Next-generation mmWave Systems

Codebook Design for Composite Beamforming in Next-generation mmWave Systems In pursuance of the unused spectrum in higher frequencies, millimeter wave (mmWave) bands have a pivotal role. However, the high path-loss and poor scattering associated with mmWave communications highlight the necessity of employing effective beamforming techniques. In order to efficiently search for the beam to serve a user and to jointly serve multiple users it is often required to use a composite beam which consists of multiple disjoint lobes. A composite beam covers multiple desired angular coverage intervals (ACIs) and ideally has maximum and uniform gain (smoothness) within each desired ACI, negligible gain (leakage) outside the desired ACIs, and sharp edges. We propose an algorithm for designing such ideal composite codebook by providing an analytical closed-form solution with low computational complexity. There is a fundamental trade-off between the gain, leakage and smoothness of the beams. Our design allows to achieve different values in such trade-off based on changing the design parameters. We highlight the shortcomings of the uniform linear arrays (ULAs) in building arbitrary composite beams. Consequently, we use a recently introduced twin-ULA (TULA) antenna structure to effectively resolve these inefficiencies. Numerical results are used to validate the theoretical findings.