Posts

Learning Phase Mask for Privacy-Preserving Passive Depth Estimation

With over a billion sold each year, cameras are not only becoming ubiquitous, but are driving progress in a wide range of domains such as mixed reality, robotics, and more. However, severe concerns regarding the privacy implications of camera-based solutions currently limit the range of environments where cameras can be deployed. The key question we address is: Can cameras be enhanced with a scalable solution to preserve users’ privacy without degrading their machine intelligence capabilities? Our solution is a novel end-to-end adversarial learning pipeline in which a phase mask placed at the aperture plane of a camera is jointly optimized with respect to privacy and utility objectives. We conduct an extensive design space analysis to determine operating points with desirable privacy-utility tradeoffs that are also amenable to sensor fabrication and real-world constraints. We demonstrate the first working prototype that enables passive depth estimation while inhibiting face identification.

Improving Face Recognition by Clustering Unlabeled Faces in the Wild

While deep face recognition has benefited significantly from large-scale labeled data, current research is focused on leveraging unlabeled data to further boost performance, reducing the cost of human annotation. Prior work has mostly been in controlled settings, where the labeled and unlabeled data sets have no overlapping identities by construction. This is not realistic in large-scale face recognition, where one must contend with such overlaps, the frequency of which increases with the volume of data. Ignoring identity overlap leads to significant labeling noise, as data from the same identity is split into multiple clusters. To address this, we propose a novel identity separation method based on extreme value theory. It is formulated as an out-of-distribution detection algorithm, and greatly reduces the problems caused by overlapping-identity label noise. Considering cluster assignments as pseudo-labels, we must also overcome the labeling noise from clustering errors. We propose a modulation of the cosine loss, where the modulation weights correspond to an estimate of clustering uncertainty. Extensive experiments on both controlled and real settings demonstrate our method’s consistent improvements over supervised baselines, e.g., 11.6% improvement on IJB-A verification.

DAVID: Dual-Attentional Video Deblurring

Blind video deblurring restores sharp frames from a blurry sequence without any prior. It is a challenging task because the blur due to camera shake, object movement and defocusing is heterogeneous in both temporal and spatial dimensions. Traditional methods train on datasets synthesized with a single level of blur, and thus do not generalize well across levels of blurriness. To address this challenge, we propose a dual attention mechanism to dynamically aggregate temporal cues for deblurring with an end-to-end trainable network structure. Specifically, an internal attention module adaptively selects the optimal temporal scales for restoring the sharp center frame. An external attention module adaptively aggregates and refines multiple sharp frame estimates, from several internal attention modules designed for different blur levels. To train and evaluate on more diverse blur severity levels, we propose a Challenging DVD dataset generated from the raw DVD video set by pooling frames with different temporal windows. Our framework achieves consistently better performance on this more challenging dataset while obtaining strongly competitive results on the original DVD benchmark. Extensive ablative studies and qualitative visualizations further demonstrate the advantage of our method in handling real video blur.

Adversarial Learning of Privacy-Preserving and Task-Oriented Representations

Data privacy has emerged as an important issue as data-driven deep learning has been an essential component of modern machine learning systems. For instance, there could be a potential privacy risk of machine learning systems via the model inversion attack, whose goal is to reconstruct the input data from the latent representation of deep networks. Our work aims at learning a privacy-preserving and task-oriented representation to defend against such model inversion attacks. Specifically, we propose an adversarial reconstruction learning framework that prevents the latent representations decoded into original input data. By simulating the expected behavior of adversary, our framework is realized by minimizing the negative pixel reconstruction loss or the negative feature reconstruction (i.e., perceptual distance) loss. We validate the proposed method on face attribute prediction, showing that our method allows protecting visual privacy with a small decrease in utility performance. In addition, we show the utility-privacy trade-off with different choices of hyperparameter for negative perceptual distance loss at training, allowing service providers to determine the right level of privacy-protection with a certain utility performance. Moreover, we provide an extensive study with different selections of features, tasks, and the data to further analyze their influence on privacy protection.