DyCo: Dynamic, Contextualized AI Models Devices with limited computing resources use smaller AI models to achieve low-latency inferencing. However, model accuracy is typically much lower than the accuracy of a bigger model that is trained and deployed in places where the computing resources are relatively abundant. We describe DyCo, a novel system that ensures privacy of stream data and dynamically improves the accuracy of small models used in devices. Unlike knowledge distillation or federated learning, DyCo treats AI models as black boxes. DyCo uses a semi-supervised approach to leverage existing training frameworks and network model architectures to periodically train contextualized, smaller models for resource-constrained devices. DyCo uses a bigger, highly accurate model in the edge-cloud to auto-label data received from each sensor stream. Training in the edge-cloud (as opposed to the public cloud) ensures data privacy, and bespoke models for thousands of live data streams can be designed in parallel by using multiple edge-clouds. DyCo uses the auto-labeled data to periodically re-train, stream-specific, bespoke small models. To reduce the periodic training costs, DyCo uses different policies that are based on stride, accuracy, and confidence information.We evaluate our system, and the contextualized models, by using two object detection models for vehicles and people, and two datasets (a public benchmark and another real-world proprietary dataset). Our results show that DyCo increases the mAP accuracy measure of small models by an average of 16.3% (and up to 20%) for the public benchmark and an average of 19.0% (and up to 64.9%) for the real-world dataset. DyCo also decreases the training costs for contextualized models by more than an order of magnitude.
Yi Yang is a former researcher at NEC Laboratories America, Inc.
Magic-Pipe: Self-optimizing video analytics pipelines Microservices-based video analytics pipelines routinely use multiple deep convolutional neural networks. We observe that the best allocation of resources to deep learning engines (or microservices) in a pipeline, and the best configuration of parameters for each engine vary over time, often at a timescale of minutes or even seconds based on the dynamic content in the video. We leverage these observations to develop Magic-Pipe, a self-optimizing video analytic pipeline that leverages AI techniques to periodically self-optimize. First, we propose a new, adaptive resource allocation technique to dynamically balance the resource usage of different microservices, based on dynamic video content. Then, we propose an adaptive microservice parameter tuning technique to balance the accuracy and performance of a microservice, also based on video content. Finally, we propose two different approaches to reduce unnecessary computations due to unavoidable mismatch of independently designed, re-usable deep-learning engines: a deep learning approach to improve the feature extractor performance by filtering inputs for which no features can be extracted, and a low-overhead graph-theoretic approach to minimize redundant computations across frames. Our evaluation of Magic-Pipe shows that pipelines augmented with self-optimizing capability exhibit application response times that are an order of magnitude better than the original pipelines, while using the same hardware resources, and achieving similar high accuracy.
UAC: An Uncertainty-Aware Face Clustering Algorithm We investigate ways to leverage uncertainty in face images to improve the quality of the face clusters. We observe that popular clustering algorithms do not produce better quality clusters when clustering probabilistic face representations that implicitly model uncertainty – these algorithms predict up to 9.6X more clusters than the ground truth for the IJB-A benchmark. We empirically analyze the causes for this unexpected behavior and identify excessive false-positives and false-negatives (when comparing face-pairs) as the main reasons for poor quality clustering. Based on this insight, we propose an uncertainty-aware clustering algorithm, UAC, which explicitly leverages uncertainty information during clustering to decide when a pair of faces are similar or when a predicted cluster should be discarded. UAC considers (a) uncertainty of faces in face-pairs, (b) bins face-pairs into different categories based on an uncertainty threshold, (c) intelligently varies the similarity threshold during clustering to reduce false-negatives and false-positives, and (d) discards predicted clusters that exhibit a high measure of uncertainty. Extensive experimental results on several popular benchmarks and comparisons with state-of-the-art clustering methods show that UAC produces significantly better clusters by leveraging uncertainty in face images – predicted number of clusters is up to 0.18X more of the ground truth for the IJB-A benchmark.
F3S: Free Flow Fever Screening Identification of people with elevated body temperature can reduce or dramatically slow down the spread of infectious diseases like COVID-19. We present a novel fever-screening system, F 3 S, that uses edge machine learning techniques to accurately measure core body temperatures of multiple individuals in a free-flow setting. F 3 S performs real-time sensor fusion of visual camera with thermal camera data streams to detect elevated body temperature, and it has several unique features: (a) visual and thermal streams represent very different modalities, and we dynamically associate semantically-equivalent regions across visual and thermal frames by using a new, dynamic alignment technique that analyzes content and context in real-time, (b) we track people through occlusions, identify the eye (inner canthus), forehead, face and head regions where possible, and provide an accurate temperature reading by using a prioritized refinement algorithm, and (c) we robustly detect elevated body temperature even in the presence of personal protective equipment like masks, or sunglasses or hats, all of which can be affected by hot weather and lead to spurious temperature readings. F 3 S has been deployed at over a dozen large commercial establishments, providing contact-less, free-flow, real-time fever screening for thousands of employees and customers in indoors and outdoor settings.
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