Data-driven Modelling of EDFAs by Neural Networks Dependence of EDFA gain shape on input power and input spectrum shape is modelled using a simple neural network-based architecture for amplifiers with different gains and output powers. The model can predict the gain within ±0.1 dB. Even though the model has good success predicting the performance of the particular EDFA it is trained with, it is not as successful when used to predict a different EDFA, or even the same EDFA with a different pump power. However, retraining the model with a small amount of supplementary data from a second EDFA makes the model able to predict the performance of the second EDFA with little loss in performance.
Improvement of resilience of submarine networks based on fiber sensing Simultaneous phase and polarization sensing with span length resolution using the supervisory path is demonstrated. It is shown that by measuring polarization rotation matrix of the return paths, instead of monitoring only the state of polarization, location of the polarization disturbance can be determined even for large polarization rotations. By using the polarization rotation matrices, the phase and polarization disturbances are successfully decoupled. How the existing supervisory system and sensing can coexist in new SDM cables that utilizes pump sharing is discussed.
Polarization Sensing Using Polarization Rotation Matrix Eigenvalue Method Polarization-based, multi-span sensing over a link with reflection-back circuits is demonstrated experimentally. By measuring rotation matrices instead of just monitoring polarization, a 35 dB extinction in localization is achieved regardless of the disturbance magnitude.
Weight Pruning Techniques for Nonlinear Impairment Compensation using Neural Networks Neural networks (NNs) are attractive for nonlinear impairment compensation applications in communication systems, such as optical fiber nonlinearity, nonlinearity of driving amplifiers, and nonlinearity of semiconductor optical amplifiers. Without prior knowledge of the transmission link or the hardware characteristics, optimal parameters are completely constructed from a data-driven approach by exploring training datasets, once the NN structure is given. On the other hand, due to computational power and energy consumption, especially in high-speed communication systems, the computational complexity of the optimized NN needs to be confined to the hardware, such as FPGA or ASIC without sacrificing its performance improvement. In this paper, two approaches are presented to accommodate the NN-based algorithms for high-speed communication systems. The first approach is to reduce computational complexity of the NN-based nonlinearity compensation algorithms on the basis of weight pruning (WP). WP can significantly reduce the computational complexity, especially because the nonlinear compensation task studied here results in a sparse NN. The authors have studied an enhanced approach of WP by imposing an additional restriction on the selection of non-zero weights on each hidden layer. The second approach is to implement NNs onto a silicon-photonic integrated platform, enabling power efficiency to be further improved without sacrificing the high-speed operation.
A Silicon Photonic-Electronic Neural Network for Fiber Nonlinearity Compensation In optical communication systems, fibre nonlinearity is the major obstacle in increasing the transmission capacity. Typically, digital signal processing techniques and hardware are used to deal with optical communication signals, but increasing speed and computational complexity create challenges for such approaches. Highly parallel, ultrafast neural networks using photonic devices have the potential to ease the requirements placed on digital signal processing circuits by processing the optical signals in the analogue domain. Here we report a silicon photonic–electronic neural network for solving fibre nonlinearity compensation in submarine optical-fibre transmission systems. Our approach uses a photonic neural network based on wavelength-division multiplexing built on a silicon photonic platform compatible with complementary metal–oxide–semiconductor technology. We show that the platform can be used to compensate for optical fibre nonlinearities and improve the quality factor of the signal in a 10,080 km submarine fibre communication system. The Q-factor improvement is comparable to that of a software-based neural network implemented on a workstation assisted with a 32-bit graphic processing unit.
Guided Acoustic Brillouin Scattering Measurements In Optical Communication Fibers Guided acoustic Brillouin (GAWBS) noise is measured using a novel, homodyne measurement technique for four commonly used fibers in long-distance optical transmission systems. The measurements are made with single spans and then shown to be consistent with separate multi-span long-distance measurements. The inverse dependence of the GAWBS noise on the fiber effective area is confirmed by comparing different fibers with the effective area varying between 80 µm2 and 150 µm2. The line broadening effect of the coating is observed, and the correlation between the width of the GAWBS peaks to the acoustic mode profile is confirmed. An extensive model of the GAWBS noise in long-distance fibers is presented, including corrections to some commonly repeated mistakes in previous reports. It is established through the model and verified with the measurements that the depolarized scattering caused by TR2m modes contributes twice as much to the optical noise in the orthogonal polarization to the original source, as it does to the noise in parallel polarization. Using this relationship, the polarized and depolarized contributions to the measured GAWBS noise is separated for the first time. As a result, a direct comparison between the theory and the measured GAWBS noise spectrum is shown for the first time with excellent agreement. It is confirmed that the total GAWBS noise can be calculated from fiber parameters under certain assumptions. It is predicted that the level of depolarized GAWBS noise created by the fiber may depend on the polarization diffusion length, and consequently, possible ways to reduce GAWBS noise are proposed. Using the developed theory, dependence of GAWBS noise on the location of the core is calculated to show that multi-core fibers would have a similar level of GAWBS noise no matter where their cores are positioned.
Estimation of Core-Cladding Concentricity Error From GAWBS Noise Spectrum CCCE in a 60-km fiber is estimated from its GAWBS noise spectrum by comparing the TR 1m modes with the R 0m modes. The estimated CCCE value 0.73 μm is consistent with conventional measurements of 0.6–0.8 μm.
Nonlinear Impairment Compensation using Neural Networks Neural networks are attractive for nonlinear impairment compensation applications in communication systems. In this paper, several approaches to reduce computational complexity of the neural network-based algorithms are presented.
Demonstration of photonic neural network for fiber nonlinearity compensation in long-haul transmission systems We demonstrate the experimental implementation of photonic neural network for fiber nonlinearity compensation over a 10,080 km trans-pacific transmission link. Q-factor improvement of 0.51 dB is achieved with only 0.06 dB lower than numerical simulations.
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