Improving Cross-Domain Detection with Self-Supervised Learning Cross-Domain Detection (XDD) aims to train a domain-adaptive object detector using unlabeled images from a target domain and labeled images from a source domain. Existing approaches achieve this either by aligning the feature maps or the region proposals from the two domains, or by transferring the style of source images to that of target images. In this paper, rather than proposing another method following the existing lines, we introduce a new framework complementary to existing methods. Our framework unifies some popular Self-Supervised Learning (SSL) techniques (e.g., rotation angle prediction, strong/weak data augmentation, mean teacher modeling) and adapts them to the XDD task. Our basic idea is to leverage the unsupervised nature of these SSL techniques and apply them simultaneously across domains (source and target) and models (student and teacher). These SSL techniques can thus serve as shared bridges that facilitate knowledge transfer between domains. More importantly, as these techniques are independently applied in each domain, they are complementary to existing domain alignment techniques that relies on interactions between domains (e.g., adversarial alignment). We perform extensive analyses on these SSL techniques and show that they significantly improve the performance of existing methods. In addition, we reach comparable or even better performance than the state-of-the-art methods when integrating our framework with an old well-established method.
Q: How to Specialize Large Vision-Language Models to Data-Scarce VQA Tasks? A: Self-Train on Unlabeled Images! Finetuning a large vision language model (VLM) on a target dataset after large scale pretraining is a dominant paradigm in visual question answering (VQA). Datasets for specialized tasks such as knowledge-based VQA or VQA in non natural-image domains are orders of magnitude smaller than those for general-purpose VQA. While collecting additional labels for specialized tasks or domains can be challenging, unlabeled images are often available. We introduce SelTDA (Self-Taught Data Augmentation), a strategy for finetuning large VLMs on small-scale VQA datasets. SelTDA uses the VLM and target dataset to build a teacher model that can generate question-answer pseudolabels directly conditioned on an image alone, allowing us to pseudolabel unlabeled images. SelTDA then finetunes the initial VLM on the original dataset augmented with freshly pseudolabeled images. We describe a series of experiments showing that our self-taught data augmentation increases robustness to adversarially searched questions, counterfactual examples, and rephrasings, it improves domain generalization, and results in greater retention of numerical reasoning skills. The proposed strategy requires no additional annotations or architectural modifications, and is compatible with any modern encoder-decoder multimodal transformer. Code available at https://github.com/codezakh/SelTDA
Q: How to Specialize Large Vision Language Models to Data Scarce VQA Tasks? A: Self Train on Unlabeled Images! Finetuning a large vision language model (VLM) on a target dataset after large scale pretraining is a dominant paradigm in visual question answering (VQA). Datasets for specialized tasks such as knowledge based VQA or VQA in non natural image domains are orders of magnitude smaller than those for general purpose VQA. While collecting additional labels for specialized tasks or domains can be challenging, unlabeled images are often available. We introduce SelTDA (Self Taught Data Augmentation), a strategy for finetuning large VLMs on small scale VQA datasets. SelTDA uses the VLM and target dataset to build a teacher model that can generate question answer pseudolabels directly conditioned on an image alone, allowing us to pseudolabel unlabeled images. SelTDA then finetunes the initial VLM on the original dataset augmented with freshly pseudolabeled images. We describe a series of experiments showing that our self taught data augmentation increases robustness to adversarially searched questions, counterfactual examples and rephrasings, improves domain generalization, and results in greater retention of numerical reasoning skills. The proposed strategy requires no additional annotations or architectural modifications, and is compatible with any modern encoder decoder multimodal transformer. Code available at https://github.com/codezakh/SelTDA.
Single-Stream Multi-Level Alignment for Vision-Language Pretraining is self-supervised vision language pretraining from pure images and text with a contrastive loss is effective, but ignores fine grained alignment due to a dual stream architecture that aligns image and text representations only on a global level. Earlier, supervised, non contrastive methods were capable of finer grained alignment, but required dense annotations that were not scalable. We propose a single stream architecture that aligns images and language at multiple levels: global, fine grained patch token, and conceptual/semantic, using two novel tasks: symmetric cross modality reconstruction (XMM) and a pseudo labeled key word prediction (PSL). In XMM, we mask input tokens from one modality and use cross modal information to reconstruct the masked token, thus improving fine grained alignment between the two modalities. In PSL, we use attention to select keywords in a caption, use a momentum encoder to recommend other important keywords that are missing from the caption but represented in the image, and then train the visual encoder to predict the presence of those keywords, helping it learn semantic concepts that are essential for grounding a textual token to an image region. We demonstrate competitive performance and improved data efficiency on image text retrieval, grounding, visual question answering/reasoning against larger models and models trained on more data. Code and models available at this http URL.
Inductive and Unsupervised Representation Learning on Graph Structured Objects Inductive and unsupervised graph learning is a critical technique for predictive or information retrieval tasks where label information is difficult to obtain. It is also challenging to make graph learning inductive and unsupervised at the same time, as learning processes guided by reconstruction error based loss functions inevitably demand graph similarity evaluation that is usually computationally intractable. In this paper, we propose a general framework SEED (Sampling, Encoding, and Embedding Distributions) for inductive and unsupervised representation learning on graph structured objects. Instead of directly dealing with the computational challenges raised by graph similarity evaluation, given an input graph, the SEED framework samples a number of subgraphs whose reconstruction errors could be efficiently evaluated, encodes the subgraph samples into a collection of subgraph vectors, and employs the embedding of the subgraph vector distribution as the output vector representation for the input graph. By theoretical analysis, we demonstrate the close connection between SEED and graph isomorphism. Using public benchmark datasets, our empirical study suggests the proposed SEED framework is able to achieve up to 10% improvement, compared with competitive baseline methods.
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