Why is the video analytics accuracy fluctuating, and what can we do about it?

Publication Date: 10/23/2022

Event: ECCV 2022 Workshop on Adversarial Robustness in the Real World

Reference: pp. 1-17, 2022

Authors: Sibendu Paul, NEC Laboratories America, Inc., Purdue University; Kunal Rao, NEC Laboratories America, Inc.; Giuseppe Coviello, NEC Laboratories America, Inc.; Murugan Sankaradas, NEC Laboratories America, Inc.; Oliver Po, NEC Laboratories America, Inc.; Y. Charlie Hu, Purdue University; Srimat T. Chakradhar, NEC Laboratories America, Inc.

Abstract: It is a common practice to think of a video as a sequence of images (frames), and re-use deep neural network models that are trained only on images for similar analytics tasks on videos. In this paper, we show that this “leap of faith” that deep learning models that work well on images will also work well on videos is actually flawed. We show that even when a video camera is viewing a scene that is not changing in any human-perceptible way, and we control for external factors like video compression and environment (lighting), the accuracy of video analytics application fluctuates noticeably. These fluctuations occur because successive frames produced by the video camera may look similar visually but are perceived quite differently by the video analytics applications. We observed that the root cause for these fluctuations is the dynamic camera parameter changes that a video camera automatically makes in order to capture and produce a visually pleasing video. The camera inadvertently acts as an “unintentional adversary” because these slight changes in the image pixel values in consecutive frames, as we show, have a noticeably adverse impact on the accuracy of insights from video analytics tasks that re-use image-trained deep learning models. To address this inadvertent adversarial effect from the camera, we explore the use of transfer learning techniques to improve learning in video analytics tasks through the transfer of knowledge from learning on image analytics tasks. Our experiments with a number of different cameras, and a variety of different video analytics tasks, show that the inadvertent adversarial effect from the camera can be noticeably offset by quickly re-training the deep learning models using transfer learning. In particular, we show that our newly trained Yolov5 model reduces fluctuation in object detection across frames, which leads to better tracking of objects (∼40% fewer mistakes in tracking). Our paper also provides new directions and techniques to mitigate the camera’s adversarial effect on deep learning models used for video analytics applications.

Publication Link: https://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-3-031-25056-9_28#:~:text=We%20systematically%20eliminate%20external%20factors,unintentional%20adversary%E2%80%9D%20for%20video%20analytics