Action Recognition is a computer vision and artificial intelligence task that involves the identification and classification of human actions or activities performed in video sequences or image sequences. The goal of action recognition is to automatically recognize and categorize various actions or movements, such as walking, running, jumping, dancing, or specific gestures, from visual data, typically videos or image sequences.


Few-Shot Video Classification via Representation Fusion and Promotion Learning

Recent few-shot video classification (FSVC) works achieve promising performance by capturing similarity across support and query samples with different temporal alignment strategies or learning discriminative features via Transformer block within each episode. However, they ignore two important issues: a) It is difficult to capture rich intrinsic action semantics from a limited number of support instances within each task. b) Redundant or irrelevant frames in videos easily weaken the positive influence of discriminative frames. To address these two issues, this paper proposes a novel Representation Fusion and Promotion Learning (RFPL) mechanism with two sub-modules: meta-action learning (MAL) and reinforced image representation (RIR). Concretely, during training stage, we perform online learning for seeking a task-shared meta-action bank to enrich task-specific action representation by injecting global knowledge. Besides, we exploit reinforcement learning to obtain the importance of each frame and refine the representation. This operation maximizes the contribution of discriminative frames to further capture the similarity of support and query samples from the same category. Our RFPL framework is highly flexible that it can be integrated with many existing FSVC methods. Extensive experiments show that RFPL significantly enhances the performance of existing FSVC models when integrated with them.

Source-Free Video Domain Adaptation with Spatial-Temporal-Historical Consistency Learning

Source-free domain adaptation (SFDA) is an emerging research topic that studies how to adapt a pretrained source model using unlabeled target data. It is derived from unsupervised domain adaptation but has the advantage of not requiring labeled source data to learn adaptive models. This makes it particularly useful in real-world applications where access to source data is restricted. While there has been some SFDA work for images, little attention has been paid to videos. Naively extending image-based methods to videos without considering the unique properties of videos often leads to unsatisfactory results. In this paper, we propose a simple and highly flexible method for Source-Free Video Domain Adaptation (SFVDA), which extensively exploits consistency learning for videos from spatial, temporal, and historical perspectives. Our method is based on the assumption that videos of the same action category are drawn from the same low-dimensional space, regardless of the spatio-temporal variations in the high-dimensional space that cause domain shifts. To overcome domain shifts, we simulate spatio-temporal variations by applying spatial and temporal augmentations on target videos, and encourage the model to make consistent predictions from a video and its augmented versions. Due to the simple design, our method can be applied to various SFVDA settings, and experiments show that our method achieves state-of-the-art performance for all the settings.

Learning Cross-Modal Contrastive Features for Video Domain Adaptation

Learning transferable and domain adaptive feature representations from videos is important for video-relevant tasks such as action recognition. Existing video domain adaptation methods mainly rely on adversarial feature alignment, which has been derived from the RGB image space. However, video data is usually associated with multi-modal information, e.g., RGB and optical flow, and thus it remains a challenge to design a better method that considers the cross-modal inputs under the cross-domain adaptation setting. To this end, we propose a unified framework for video domain adaptation, which simultaneously regularizes cross-modal and cross-domain feature representations. Specifically, we treat each modality in a domain as a view and leverage the contrastive learning technique with properly designed sampling strategies. As a result, our objectives regularize feature spaces, which originally lack the connection across modalities or have less alignment across domains. We conduct experiments on domain adaptive action recognition benchmark datasets, i.e., UCF, HMDB, and EPIC-Kitchens, and demonstrate the effectiveness of our components against state-of-the-art algorithms.

Learning Higher-order Object Interactions for Keypoint-based Video Understanding

Action recognition is an important problem that requires identifying actions in video by learning complex interactions across scene actors and objects. However, modern deep-learning based networks often require significant computation and may capture scene context using various modalities that further increases compute costs. Efficient methods such as those used for AR/VR often only use human-keypoint information but suffer from a loss of scene context that hurts accuracy. In this paper, we describe an action-localization method, KeyNet, that uses only the keypoint data for tracking and action recognition. Specifically, KeyNet introduces the use of object based keypoint information to capture context in the scene. Our method illustrates how to build a structured intermediate representation that allows modeling higher-order interactions in the scene from object and human keypoints without using any RGB information. We find that KeyNet is able to track and classify human actions at just 5 FPS. More importantly, we demonstrate that object keypoints can be modeled to recover any loss in context from using keypoint information over AVA action and Kinetics datasets.

Shuffle and Attend: Video Domain Adaptation

We address the problem of domain adaptation in videos for the task of human action recognition. Inspired by image-based domain adaptation, we can perform video adaptation by aligning the features of frames or clips of source and target videos. However, equally aligning all clips is sub-optimal as not all clips are informative for the task. As the first novelty, we propose an attention mechanism which focuses on more discriminative clips and directly optimizes for video-level (cf. clip-level) alignment. As the backgrounds are often very different between source and target, the source background-corrupted model adapts poorly to target domain videos. To alleviate this, as a second novelty, we propose to use the clip order prediction as an auxiliary task. The clip order prediction loss, when combined with domain adversarial loss, encourages learning of representations which focus on the humans and objects involved in the actions, rather than the uninformative and widely differing (between source and target) backgrounds. We empirically show that both components contribute positively towards adaptation performance. We report state-of-the-art performances on two out of three challenging public benchmarks, two based on the UCF and HMDB datasets, and one on Kinetics to NEC-Drone datasets. We also support the intuitions and the results with qualitative results.

Unsupervised and Semi-Supervised Domain Adaptation for Action Recognition from Drones

We address the problem of human action classification in drone videos. Due to the high cost of capturing and labeling large-scale drone videos with diverse actions, we present unsupervised and semi-supervised domain adaptation approaches that leverage both the existing fully annotated action recognition datasets and unannotated (or only a few annotated) videos from drones. To study the emerging problem of drone-based action recognition, we create a new dataset, NEC-DRONE, containing 5,250 videos to evaluate the task. We tackle both problem settings with 1) same and 2) different action label sets for the source (e.g., Kinectics dataset) and target domains (drone videos). We present a combination of video and instance-based adaptation methods, paired with either a classifier or an embedding-based framework to transfer the knowledge from source to target. Our results show that the proposed adaptation approach substantially improves the performance on these challenging and practical tasks. We further demonstrate the applicability of our method for learning cross-view action recognition on the Charades-Ego dataset. We provide qualitative analysis to understand the behaviors of our approaches.

Attend and Interact: Higher-Order Object Interactions for Video Understanding

Human actions often involve complex interactions across several inter-related objects in the scene. However, existing approaches to fine-grained video understanding or visual relationship detection often rely on single object representation or pairwise object relationships. Furthermore, learning interactions across multiple objects in hundreds of frames for video is computationally infeasible and performance may suffer since a large combinatorial space has to be modeled. In this paper, we propose to efficiently learn higher-order interactions between arbitrary subgroups of objects for fine-grained video understanding. We demonstrate that modeling object interactions significantly improves accuracy for both action recognition and video captioning, while saving more than 3-times the computation over traditional pairwise relationships. The proposed method is validated on two large-scale datasets: Kinetics and ActivityNet Captions. Our SINet and SINet-Caption achieve state-of-the-art performances on both datasets even though the videos are sampled at a maximum of 1 FPS. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first work modeling object interactions on open domain large-scale video datasets, and we additionally model higher-order object interactions which improves the performance with low computational costs.