Beam Forming is a signal processing technique used to focus radio frequency (RF) energy in a specific direction, enhancing the performance of wireless communication links. Beamforming is employed to improve signal quality, increase coverage, and optimize the use of the available spectrum. This technique is particularly relevant in scenarios where it’s important to establish a strong and reliable connection between a transmitter and a receiver. The adaptability and efficiency of beamforming make it a key component in the evolution of wireless technologies.


Robust Beam Tracking and Data Communication in Millimeter Wave Mobile Networks

Millimeter-wave (mmWave) bands have shown the potential to enable high data rates for next generation mobile networks. In order to cope with high path loss and severe shadowing in mmWave frequencies, it is essential to employ massive antenna arrays and generate narrow transmission patterns (beams). When narrow beams are used, mobile user tracking is indispensable for reliable communication. In this paper, a joint beam tracking and data communication strategy is proposed in which, the base station (BS) increases the beamwidth during data transmission to compensate for location uncertainty caused by user mobility. In order to evade low beamforming gains due to widening the beam pattern, a probing scheme is proposed in which the BS transmits a number of probing packets to refine the estimation of angle of arrival based on the user feedback, which enables reliable data transmission through narrow beams again. In the proposed scheme, time is divided into similar frames each consisting of a probing phase followed by a data communication phase. A steady state analysis is provided based on which, the duration of data transmission and probing phases are optimized. Furthermore, the results are generalized to consider practical constraints such as minimum feasible beamwidth. Simulation results reveal that the proposed method outperforms well-known approaches such as optimized beam sweeping.