Deep Patel NEC Labs America

Deep Patel

Senior Associate Researcher

Machine Learning


Weakly-Supervised Temporal Action Localization with Multi-Modal Plateau Transformers

Weakly Supervised Temporal Action Localization (WSTAL) aims to jointly localize and classify action segments in untrimmed videos with only video level annotations. To leverage video level annotations most existing methods adopt the multiple instance learning paradigm where frame/snippet level action predictions are first produced and then aggregated to form a video-level prediction. Although there are trials to improve snippet-level predictions by modeling temporal relationships we argue that those implementations have not sufficiently exploited such information. In this paper we propose Multi Modal Plateau Transformers (M2PT) for WSTAL by simultaneously exploiting temporal relationships among snippets complementary information across data modalities and temporal coherence among consecutive snippets. Specifically M2PT explores a dual Transformer architecture for RGB and optical flow modalities which models intra modality temporal relationship with a self attention mechanism and inter modality temporal relationship with a cross attention mechanism. To capture the temporal coherence that consecutive snippets are supposed to be assigned with the same action M2PT deploys a Plateau model to refine the temporal localization of action segments. Experimental results on popular benchmarks demonstrate that our proposed M2PT achieves state of the art performance.

Deep Video Codec Control for Vision Models

Standardized lossy video coding is at the core of almost all real-world video processing pipelines. Rate control is used to enable standard codecs to adapt to different network bandwidth conditions or storage constraints. However standard video codecs (e.g. H.264) and their rate control modules aim to minimize video distortion w.r.t. human quality assessment. We demonstrate empirically that standard-coded videos vastly deteriorate the performance of deep vision models. To overcome the deterioration of vision performance this paper presents the first end-to-end learnable deep video codec control that considers both bandwidth constraints and downstream deep vision performance while adhering to existing standardization. We demonstrate that our approach better preserves downstream deep vision performance than traditional standard video coding.

Learning from Synthetic Human Group Activities

The study of complex human interactions and group activities has become a focal point in human-centric computer vision. However, progress in related tasks is often hindered by the challenges of obtaining large-scale labeled datasets from real-world scenarios. To address the limitation, we introduce M3Act, a synthetic data generator for multi-view multi-group multi-person human atomic actions and group activities. Powered by Unity Engine, M3Act features multiple semantic groups, highly diverse and photorealistic images, and a comprehensive set of annotations, which facilitates the learning of human-centered tasks across single-person, multi-person, and multi-group conditions. We demonstrate the advantages of M3Act across three core experiments. The results suggest our synthetic dataset can significantly improve the performance of several downstream methods and replace real-world datasets to reduce cost. Notably, M3Act improves the state-of-the-art MOTRv2 on DanceTrack dataset, leading to a hop on the leaderboard from 10t?h to 2n?d place. Moreover, M3Act opens new research for controllable 3D group activity generation. We define multiple metrics and propose a competitive baseline for the novel task. Our code and data are available at our project page:

NEC Labs America Team Attending CVPR 2024 in Seattle

Our team will be attending CVPR 2024 (The IEEE /CVF Conference on Computer Vision & Pattern Recognition) from June 17-21! See you there at the NEC Labs America Booth 1716! Stay tuned for more information about our participation.

Differentiable JPEG: The Devil is in The Details

JPEG remains one of the most widespread lossy image coding methods. However, the non-differentiable nature of JPEG restricts the application in deep learning pipelines. Several differentiable approximations of JPEG have recently been proposed to address this issue. This paper conducts a comprehensive review of existing diff. JPEG approaches and identifies critical details that have been missed by previous methods. To this end, we propose a novel diff. JPEG approach, overcoming previous limitations. Our approach is differentiable w.r.t. the input image, the JPEG quality, the quantization tables, and the color conversion parameters. We evaluate the forward and backward performance of our diff. JPEG approach against existing methods. Additionally, extensive ablations are performed to evaluate crucial design choices. Our proposed diff. JPEG resembles the (non-diff.) reference implementation best, significantly surpassing the recent-best diff. approach by 3.47dB (PSNR) on average. For strong compression rates, we can even improve PSNR by 9.51dB. Strong adversarial attack results are yielded by our diff. JPEG, demonstrating the effective gradient approximation. Our code is available at

Deep Video Codec Control

Deep Video Codec Control Lossy video compression is commonly used when transmitting and storing video data. Unified video codecs (e.g., H.264 or H.265) remain the emph(Unknown sysvar: (de facto)) standard, despite the availability of advanced (neural) compression approaches. Transmitting videos in the face of dynamic network bandwidth conditions requires video codecs to adapt to vastly different compression strengths. Rate control modules augment the codec’s compression such that bandwidth constraints are satisfied and video distortion is minimized. While, both standard video codes and their rate control modules are developed to minimize video distortion w.r.t. human quality assessment, preserving the downstream performance of deep vision models is not considered. In this paper, we present the first end-to-end learnable deep video codec control considering both bandwidth constraints and downstream vision performance, while not breaking existing standardization. We demonstrate for two common vision tasks (semantic segmentation and optical flow estimation) and on two different datasets that our deep codec control better preserves downstream performance than using 2-pass average bit rate control while meeting dynamic bandwidth constraints and adhering to standardizations.

Source-Free Video Domain Adaptation with Spatial-Temporal-Historical Consistency Learning

Source-free domain adaptation (SFDA) is an emerging research topic that studies how to adapt a pretrained source model using unlabeled target data. It is derived from unsupervised domain adaptation but has the advantage of not requiring labeled source data to learn adaptive models. This makes it particularly useful in real-world applications where access to source data is restricted. While there has been some SFDA work for images, little attention has been paid to videos. Naively extending image-based methods to videos without considering the unique properties of videos often leads to unsatisfactory results. In this paper, we propose a simple and highly flexible method for Source-Free Video Domain Adaptation (SFVDA), which extensively exploits consistency learning for videos from spatial, temporal, and historical perspectives. Our method is based on the assumption that videos of the same action category are drawn from the same low-dimensional space, regardless of the spatio-temporal variations in the high-dimensional space that cause domain shifts. To overcome domain shifts, we simulate spatio-temporal variations by applying spatial and temporal augmentations on target videos, and encourage the model to make consistent predictions from a video and its augmented versions. Due to the simple design, our method can be applied to various SFVDA settings, and experiments show that our method achieves state-of-the-art performance for all the settings.

Learning Higher-order Object Interactions for Keypoint-based Video Understanding

Action recognition is an important problem that requires identifying actions in video by learning complex interactions across scene actors and objects. However, modern deep-learning based networks often require significant computation and may capture scene context using various modalities that further increases compute costs. Efficient methods such as those used for AR/VR often only use human-keypoint information but suffer from a loss of scene context that hurts accuracy. In this paper, we describe an action-localization method, KeyNet, that uses only the keypoint data for tracking and action recognition. Specifically, KeyNet introduces the use of object based keypoint information to capture context in the scene. Our method illustrates how to build a structured intermediate representation that allows modeling higher-order interactions in the scene from object and human keypoints without using any RGB information. We find that KeyNet is able to track and classify human actions at just 5 FPS. More importantly, we demonstrate that object keypoints can be modeled to recover any loss in context from using keypoint information over AVA action and Kinetics datasets.