Dongkuan Xu is a former Research Intern in the Data Science & System Security department at NEC Laboratories America, Inc., while studying at Penn State University.


InfoGCL: Information-Aware Graph Contrastive Learning

InfoGCL: Information-Aware Graph Contrastive Learning Various graph contrastive learning models have been proposed to improve the performance of tasks on graph datasets in recent years. While effective and prevalent, these models are usually carefully customized. In particular, despite all recent work create two contrastive views, they differ in a variety of view augmentations, architectures, and objectives. It remains an open question how to build your graph contrastive learning model from scratch for particular graph tasks and datasets. In this work, we aim to fill this gap by studying how graph information is transformed and transferred during the contrastive learning process, and proposing an information-aware graph contrastive learning framework called InfoGCL. The key to the success of the proposed framework is to follow the Information Bottleneck principle to reduce the mutual information between contrastive parts while keeping task-relevant information intact at both the levels of the individual module and the entire framework so that the information loss during graph representation learning can be minimized. We show for the first time that all recent graph contrastive learning methods can be unified by our framework. Based on theoretical and empirical analysis on benchmark graph datasets, we show that InfoGCL achieves state-of-the-art performance in the settings of both graph classification and node classification tasks.

Deep Multi-Instance Contrastive Learning with Dual Attention for Anomaly Precursor Detection

Prognostics or early detection of incipient faults by leveraging the monitoring time series data in complex systems is valuable to automatic system management and predictive maintenance. However, this task is challenging. First, learning the multi-dimensional heterogeneous time series data with various anomaly types is hard. Second, the precise annotation of anomaly incipient periods is lacking. Third, the interpretable tools to diagnose the precursor symptoms are lacking. Despite some recent progresses, few of the existing approaches can jointly resolve these challenges. In this paper, we propose MCDA, a deep multi-instance contrastive learning approach with dual attention, to detect anomaly precursor. MCDA utilizes multi-instance learning to model the uncertainty of precursor period and employs recurrent neural network with tensorized hidden states to extract precursor features encoded in temporal dynamics as well as the correlations between different pairs of time series. A dual attention mechanism on both temporal aspect and time series variables is developed to pinpoint the time period and the sensors the precursor symptoms are involved in. A contrastive loss is designed to address the issue that annotated anomalies are few. To the best of our knowledge, MCDA is the first method studying the problem of ‘when’ and ‘where’ for the anomaly precursor detection simultaneously. Extensive experiments on both synthetic and real datasets demonstrate the effectiveness of MCDA.

Multi-Task Recurrent Modular Networks

We consider the models of deep multi-task learning with recurrent architectures that exploit regularities across tasks to improve the performance of multiple sequence processing tasks jointly. Most existing architectures are painstakingly customized to learn task relationships for different problems, which is not flexible enough to model the dynamic task relationships and lacks generalization abilities to novel test-time scenarios. We propose multi-task recurrent modular networks (MT-RMN) that can be incorporated in any multi-task recurrent models to address the above drawbacks. MT-RMN consists of a shared encoder and multiple task-specific decoders, and recurrently operates over time. For better flexibility, it modularizes the encoder into multiple layers of sub-networks and dynamically controls the connection between these sub-networks and the decoders at different time steps, which provides the recurrent networks with varying degrees of parameter sharing for tasks with dynamic relatedness. For the generalization ability, MT-RMN aims to discover a set of generalizable sub-networks in the encoder that are assembled in different ways for different tasks. The policy networks augmented with the differentiable routers are utilized to make the binary connection decisions between the sub-networks. The experimental results on three multi-task sequence processing datasets consistently demonstrate the effectiveness of MT-RMN.

Parameterized Explainer for Graph Neural Network

Despite recent progress in Graph Neural Networks (GNNs), explaining predictions made by GNNs remains a challenging open problem. The leading method independently addresses the local explanations (i.e., important subgraph structure and node features) to interpret why a GNN model makes the prediction for a single instance, e.g. a node or a graph. As a result, the explanation generated is painstakingly customized for each instance. The unique explanation interpreting each instance independently is not sufficient to provide a global understanding of the learned GNN model, leading to the lack of generalizability and hindering it from being used in the inductive setting. Besides, as it is designed for explaining a single instance, it is challenging to explain a set of instances naturally (e.g., graphs of a given class). In this study, we address these key challenges and propose PGExplainer, a parameterized explainer for GNNs. PGExplainer adopts a deep neural network to parameterize the generation process of explanations, which enables PGExplainer a natural approach to explaining multiple instances collectively. Compared to the existing work, PGExplainer has better generalization ability and can be utilized in an inductive setting easily. Experiments on both synthetic and real-life datasets show highly competitive performance with up to 24.7% relative improvement in AUC on explaining graph classification over the leading baseline.

Tensorized LSTM with Adaptive Shared Memory for Learning Trends in Multivariate Time Series

The problem of learning and forecasting underlying trends in time series data arises in a variety of applications, such as traffic management, energy optimization, etc. In literature, a trend in time series is characterized by the slope and duration, and its prediction is then to forecast the two values of the subsequent trend given historical data of the time series. For this problem, existing approaches mainly deal with the case in univariate time series. However, in many real-world applications, there are multiple variables at play, and handling all of them at the same time is crucial for an accurate prediction. A natural way is to employ multi-task learning (MTL) techniques in which the trend learning of each time series is treated as a task. The key point of MTL is to learn task relatedness to achieve better parameter sharing, which however is challenging in trend prediction task. First, effectively modeling the complex temporal patterns in different tasks is hard as the temporal and spatial dimensions are entangled. Second, the relatedness among tasks may change over time. In this paper, we propose a neural network, DeepTrends, for multivariate time series trend prediction. The core module of DeepTrends is a tensorized LSTM with adaptive shared memory (TLASM). TLASM employs the tensorized LSTM to model the temporal patterns of long-term trend sequences in an MTL setting. With an adaptive shared memory, TLASM is able to learn the relatedness among tasks adaptively, based upon which it can dynamically vary degrees of parameter sharing among tasks. To further consider short-term patterns, DeepTrends utilizes a multi-task 1dCNN to learn the local time series features, and employs a task-specific sub-network to learn a mixture of long-term and short-term patterns for trend prediction. Extensive experiments on real datasets demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed model.

Adaptive Neural Network for Node Classification in Dynamic Networks

Given a network with the labels for a subset of nodes, transductive node classification targets to predict the labels for the remaining nodes in the network. This technique has been used in a variety of applications such as voxel functionality detection in brain network and group label prediction in social network. Most existing node classification approaches are performed in static networks. However, many real-world networks are dynamic and evolve over time. The dynamics of both node attributes and network topology jointly determine the node labels. In this paper, we study the problem of classifying the nodes in dynamic networks. The task is challenging for three reasons. First, it is hard to effectively learn the spatial and temporal information simultaneously. Second, the network evolution is complex. The evolving patterns lie in both node attributes and network topology. Third, for different networks or even different nodes in the same network, the node attributes, the neighborhood node representations and the network topology usually affect the node labels differently, it is desirable to assess the relative importance of different factors over evolutionary time scales. To address the challenges, we propose AdaNN, an adaptive neural network for transductive node classification. AdaNN learns node attribute information by aggregating the node and its neighbors, and extracts network topology information with a random walk strategy. The attribute information and topology information are further fed into two connected gated recurrent units to learn the spatio-temporal contextual information. Additionally, a triple attention module is designed to automatically model the different factors that influence the node representations. AdaNN is the first node classification model that is adaptive to different kinds of dynamic networks. Extensive experiments on real datasets demonstrate the effectiveness of AdaNN.

Spatio-Temporal Attentive RNN for Node Classification in Temporal Attributed Graphs

Node classification in graph-structured data aims to classify the nodes where labels are only available for a subset of nodes. This problem has attracted considerable research efforts in recent years. In real-world applications, both graph topology and node attributes evolve over time. Existing techniques, however, mainly focus on static graphs and lack the capability to simultaneously learn both temporal and spatial/structural features. Node classification in temporal attributed graphs is challenging for two major aspects. First, effectively modeling the spatio-temporal contextual information is hard. Second, as temporal and spatial dimensions are entangled, to learn the feature representation of one target node, it’s desirable and challenging to differentiate the relative importance of different factors, such as different neighbors and time periods. In this paper, we propose STAR, a spatio-temporal attentive recurrent network model, to deal with the above challenges. STAR extracts the vector representation of neighborhood by sampling and aggregating local neighbor nodes. It further feeds both the neighborhood representation and node attributes into a gated recurrent unit network to jointly learn the spatio-temporal contextual information. On top of that, we take advantage of the dual attention mechanism to perform a thorough analysis on the model interpretability. Extensive experiments on real datasets demonstrate the effectiveness of the STAR model.

Deep Co-Clustering

Co-clustering partitions instances and features simultaneously by leveraging the duality between them, and it often yields impressive performance improvement over traditional clustering algorithms. The recent development in learning deep representations has demonstrated the advantage in extracting effective features. However, the research on leveraging deep learning frameworks for co-clustering is limited for two reasons: 1) current deep clustering approaches usually decouple feature learning and cluster assignment as two separate steps, which cannot yield the task-specific feature representation; 2) existing deep clustering approaches cannot learn representations for instances and features simultaneously. In this paper, we propose a deep learning model for co-clustering called DeepCC. DeepCC utilizes the deep autoencoder for dimension reduction, and employs a variant of Gaussian Mixture Model (GMM) to infer the cluster assignments. A mutual information loss is proposed to bridge the training of instances and features. DeepCC jointly optimizes the parameters of the deep autoencoder and the mixture model in an end-to-end fashion on both the instance and the feature spaces, which can help the deep autoencoder escape from local optima and the mixture model circumvent the Expectation-Maximization (EM) algorithm. To the best of our knowledge, DeepCC is the first deep learning model for co-clustering. Experimental results on various dataseis demonstrate the effectiveness of DeepCC.

Co-Regularized Deep Multi-Network Embedding

Network embedding aims to learn a low-dimensional vector representation for each node in the social and information networks, with the constraint to preserve network structures. Most existing methods focus on single network embedding, ignoring the relationship between multiple networks. In many real-world applications, however, multiple networks may contain complementary information, which can lead to further refined node embeddings. Thus, in this paper, we propose a novel multi-network embedding method, DMNE. DMNE is flexible. It allows different networks to have different sizes, to be (un)weighted and (un)directed. It leverages multiple networks via cross-network relationships between nodes in different networks, which may form many-to-many node mappings, and be associated with weights. To model the non-linearity of the network data, we develop DMNE to have a new deep learning architecture, which coordinates multiple neural networks (one for each input network data) with a co-regularized loss function. With multiple layers of non-linear mappings, DMNE progressively transforms each input network to a highly non-linear latent space, and in the meantime, adapts different spaces to each other through a co-regularized learning schema. Extensive experimental results on real-life datasets demonstrate the effectiveness of our method.