Glenn A. Wellbrock works for Verizon.


Explore Benefits of Distributed Fiber Optic Sensing for Optical Network Service Providers

We review various applications of distributed fiber optic sensing (DFOS) and machine learning (ML) technologies that particularly benefit telecom operators’ fiber networks and businesses. By leveraging relative phase shift of the reflectance of coherent Rayleigh, Brillouin and Raman scattering of light wave, the ambient environmental vibration, acoustic effects, temperature and fiber/cable strain can be detected. Fiber optic sensing technology allows optical fiber to support sensing features in addition to its conventional role to transmit data in telecommunications. DFOS has recently helped telecom operators by adding multiple sensing features and proved feasibility of co-existence of sensing and communication systems on same fiber. We review the architecture of DFOS technique and show examples where optical fiber sensing helps enhance network operation efficiency and create new services for customers on deployed fiber infrastructures, such as determination of cable locations, cable cut prevention, perimeter intrusion detection and networked sensing applications. In addition, edge AI platform allows data processing to be conducted on-the-fly with low latency. Based on discriminative spatial-temporal signatures of different events of interest, real-time processing of the sensing data from the DFOS system provides results of the detection, classification and localization immediately.

DAS over 1,007-km Hybrid Link with 10-Tb/s DP-16QAM Co-propagation using Frequency-Diverse Chirped Pulses

We report the first distributed acoustic sensing (DAS) experiment with over >1,000 km reach on a hybrid link comprising of a mixture of field and lab fibers with bi-directional inline Raman amplification after each span. We used 20× frequency-diversity chirped-pulses for the probe signal,and recovered the Rayleigh backscatter using a coherent receiver with correlation detection and diversity combining. A measurand resolution of ∼100 pϵ/√ Hz at a gauge length of 20 meters achieved in the offline experiment. We also demonstrate the first real-time FPGA implementation of chirped-pulse DAS without frequency diversity over a range of 210 km.

Simultaneous Sensing and Communication in Optical Fibers

We explore two fiber sensing methods which enables coexistence with data transmission on DWDM fiber networks. Vibration detection and localization can be achieved by extracting optical phase from modified coherent transponders. Frequency-diverse chirped-pulse DAS with all-Raman amplification can improve SNR and achieves multi-span monitoring.

DAS over 1,007-km Hybrid Link with 10-Tb/s DP-16QAM Co-propagation using Frequency-Diverse Chirped Pulses (OFC)

We report the first distributed acoustic sensing (DAS) results over>1,000 km on a field-lab hybrid link using chirped-pulses with correlation detection and 20× frequency-diversity, achieving a sensitivity of 100 pa/√Hz at 20-meters spatial resolution.

Perimeter Intrusion Detection with Rayleigh Enhanced Fiber Using Telecom Cables as Sensing Backhaul

We report field test results of facility perimeter intrusion detection with distributed-fiber-sensing technology and backscattering-enhanced-fiber by using deployed telecom fiber cables as sensing backhaul. Various intrusive activities, such as walking/jumping at >100ft distance, are detected.

Vibration Detection and Localization using Modified Digital Coherent Telecom Transponders

We demonstrate a vibration detection and localization scheme based on bidirectional transmission of telecom signals with digital coherent detection at the receivers. Optical phase is extracted from the digital signal processing blocks of the coherent receiver, from which the vibration component is extracted by bandpass filtering, and the position along the cable closest to the vibration’s epicenter is recovered by correlation. We demonstrate our scheme first using offline experiment with 200-Gb/s DP-16QAM, and we report field trial results over installed fiber to detect real-world vibration events.

First Field Trial of Monitoring Vehicle Traffic on Multiple Routes by Using Photonic Switch and Distributed Fiber Optics Sensing System on Standard Telecom Networks

We demonstrated for the first time that motor vehicle traffic and road capacity on multiple fiber routes can be monitored by using a distributed-fiber-optics-sensing system with a photonic switch on in-service telecom fiber cables.

Field Trial of Cable Safety Protection and Road Traffic Monitoring over Operational 5G Transport Network with Fiber Sensing and On-Premise AI Technologies

We report the distributed-fiber-sensing field trial results over a 5G-transport-network. A standard communication fiber is used with real-time AI processing for cable self-protection, cable-cut threat assessment and road traffic monitoring in a long-term continuous test.

Field Trial of Abnormal Activity Detection and Threat Level Assessment with Fiber Optic Sensing for Telecom Infrastructure Protection

We report the field trial results of monitoring abnormal activities near deployed cable with fiber-optic-sensing technology for cable protection. Detection and position determination of abnormal events and evaluating the threat to the cable is realized.

Field Trial of Vibration Detection and Localization using Coherent Telecom Transponders over 380-km Link

We demonstrate vibration detection and localization based on extracting optical phase from the DSP elements of a coherent receiver in bidirectional WDM transmission of 200-Gb/s DP-16QAM over 380 km of installed field fiber.