Kai Li NEC Labs America

Kai Li


Machine Learning


Improving Cross-Domain Detection with Self-Supervised Learning

Improving Cross-Domain Detection with Self-Supervised Learning Cross-Domain Detection (XDD) aims to train a domain-adaptive object detector using unlabeled images from a target domain and labeled images from a source domain. Existing approaches achieve this either by aligning the feature maps or the region proposals from the two domains, or by transferring the style of source images to that of target images. In this paper, rather than proposing another method following the existing lines, we introduce a new framework complementary to existing methods. Our framework unifies some popular Self-Supervised Learning (SSL) techniques (e.g., rotation angle prediction, strong/weak data augmentation, mean teacher modeling) and adapts them to the XDD task. Our basic idea is to leverage the unsupervised nature of these SSL techniques and apply them simultaneously across domains (source and target) and models (student and teacher). These SSL techniques can thus serve as shared bridges that facilitate knowledge transfer between domains. More importantly, as these techniques are independently applied in each domain, they are complementary to existing domain alignment techniques that relies on interactions between domains (e.g., adversarial alignment). We perform extensive analyses on these SSL techniques and show that they significantly improve the performance of existing methods. In addition, we reach comparable or even better performance than the state-of-the-art methods when integrating our framework with an old well-established method.

Camouflaged Object Detection with Feature Decomposition and Edge Reconstruction

Camouflaged Object Detection with Feature Decomposition and Edge Reconstruction Camouflaged object detection (COD) aims to address the tough issue of identifying camouflaged objects visually blended into the surrounding backgrounds. COD is a challenging task due to the intrinsic similarity of camouflaged objects with the background, as well as their ambiguous boundaries. Existing approaches to this problem have developed various techniques to mimic the human visual system. Albeit effective in many cases, these methods still struggle when camouflaged objects are so deceptive to the vision system. In this paper, we propose the FEature Decomposition and Edge Reconstruction (FEDER) model for COD. The FEDER model addresses the intrinsic similarity of foreground and background by decomposing the features into different frequency bands using learnable wavelets. It then focuses on the most informative bands to mine subtle cues that differentiate foreground and background. To achieve this, a frequency attention module and a guidance-based feature aggregation module are developed. To combat the ambiguous boundary problem, we propose to learn an auxiliary edge reconstruction task alongside the COD task. We design an ordinary differential equation-inspired edge reconstruction module that generates exact edges. By learning the auxiliary task in conjunction with the COD task, the FEDER model can generate precise prediction maps with accurate object boundaries. Experiments show that our FEDER model significantly outperforms state-of-the-art methods with cheaper computational and memory costs.

Conditional Image-to-Video Generation with Latent Flow Diffusion Models

Conditional Image-to-Video Generation with Latent Flow Diffusion Models Conditional image-to-video (cI2V) generation aims to synthesize a new plausible video starting from an image (e.g., a person’s face) and a condition (e.g., an action class label like smile). The key challenge of the cI2V task lies in the simultaneous generation of realistic spatial appearance and temporal dynamics corresponding to the given image and condition. In this paper, we propose an approach for cI2V using novel latent flow diffusion models (LFDM) that synthesize an optical flow sequence in the latent space based on the given condition to warp the given image. Compared to previous direct-synthesis-based works, our proposed LFDM can better synthesize spatial details and temporal motion by fully utilizing the spatial content of the given image and warping it in the latent space according to the generated temporally-coherent flow. The training of LFDM consists of two separate stages: (1) an unsupervised learning stage to train a latent flow auto-encoder for spatial content generation, including a flow predictor to estimate latent flow between pairs of video frames, and (2) a conditional learning stage to train a 3D-UNet-based diffusion model (DM) for temporal latent flow generation. Unlike previous DMs operating in pixel space or latent feature space that couples spatial and temporal information, the DM in our LFDM only needs to learn a low-dimensional latent flow space for motion generation, thus being more computationally efficient. We conduct comprehensive experiments on multiple datasets, where LFDM consistently outperforms prior arts. Furthermore, we show that LFDM can be easily adapted to new domains by simply finetuning the image decoder. Our code is available at https://github.com/nihaomiao/CVPR23_LFDM.

Exploring Compositional Visual Generation with Latent Classifier Guidance

Exploring Compositional Visual Generation with Latent Classifier Guidance Diffusion probabilistic models have achieved enormous success in the field of image generation and manipulation. In this paper, we explore a novel paradigm of using the diffusion model and classifier guidance in the latent semantic space for compositional visual tasks. Specifically, we train latent diffusion models and auxiliary latent classifiers to facilitate non-linear navigation of latent representation generation for any pre-trained generative model with a semantic latent space. We demonstrate that such conditional generation achieved by latent classifier guidance provably maximizes a lower bound of the conditional log probability during training. To maintain the original semantics during manipulation, we introduce a new guidance term, which we show is crucial for achieving compositionality. With additional assumptions, we show that the non-linear manipulation reduces to a simple latent arithmetic approach. We show that this paradigm based on latent classifier guidance is agnostic to pre-trained generative models, and present competitive results for both image generation and sequential manipulation of real and synthetic images. Our findings suggest that latent classifier guidance is a promising approach that merits further exploration, even in the presence of other strong competing methods.

Source-Free Video Domain Adaptation with Spatial-Temporal-Historical Consistency Learning

Source-Free Video Domain Adaptation with Spatial-Temporal-Historical Consistency Learning Source-free domain adaptation (SFDA) is an emerging research topic that studies how to adapt a pretrained source model using unlabeled target data. It is derived from unsupervised domain adaptation but has the advantage of not requiring labeled source data to learn adaptive models. This makes it particularly useful in real-world applications where access to source data is restricted. While there has been some SFDA work for images, little attention has been paid to videos. Naively extending image-based methods to videos without considering the unique properties of videos often leads to unsatisfactory results. In this paper, we propose a simple and highly flexible method for Source-Free Video Domain Adaptation (SFVDA), which extensively exploits consistency learning for videos from spatial, temporal, and historical perspectives. Our method is based on the assumption that videos of the same action category are drawn from the same low-dimensional space, regardless of the spatio-temporal variations in the high-dimensional space that cause domain shifts. To overcome domain shifts, we simulate spatio-temporal variations by applying spatial and temporal augmentations on target videos, and encourage the model to make consistent predictions from a video and its augmented versions. Due to the simple design, our method can be applied to various SFVDA settings, and experiments show that our method achieves state-of-the-art performance for all the settings.

Towards Realizing the Value of Labeled Target Samples: a Two-Stage Approach for Semi-Supervised Domain Adaptation

Towards Realizing the Value of Labeled Target Samples: a Two-Stage Approach for Semi-Supervised Domain Adaptation Semi-Supervised Domain Adaptation (SSDA) is a recently emerging research topic that extends from the widely-investigated Unsupervised Domain Adaptation (UDA) by further having a few target samples labeled, i.e., the model is trained with labeled source samples, unlabeled target samples as well as a few labeled target samples. Compared with UDA, the key to SSDA lies how to most effectively utilize the few labeled target samples. Existing SSDA approaches simply merge the few precious labeled target samples into vast labeled source samples or further align them, which dilutes the value of labeled target samples and thus still obtains a biased model. To remedy this, in this paper, we propose to decouple SSDA as an UDA problem and a semi-supervised learning problem where we first learn an UDA model using labeled source and unlabeled target samples and then adapt the learned UDA model in a semi-supervised way using labeled and unlabeled target samples. By utilizing the labeled source samples and target samples separately, the bias problem can be well mitigated. We further propose a consistency learning based mean teacher model to effectively adapt the learned UDA model using labeled and unlabeled target samples. Experiments show our approach outperforms existing methods.

Adversarial Alignment for Source Free Object Detection

Adversarial Alignment for Source Free Object Detection Source-free object detection (SFOD) aims to transfer a detector pre-trained on a label-rich source domain to an unlabeled target domain without seeing source data. While most existing SFOD methods generate pseudo labels via a source-pretrained model to guide training, these pseudo labels usually contain high noises due to heavy domain discrepancy. In order to obtain better pseudo supervisions, we divide the target domain into source-similar and source-dissimilar parts and align them in the feature space by adversarial learning. Specifically, we design a detection variance-based criterion to divide the target domain. This criterion is motivated by a finding that larger detection variances denote higher recall and larger similarity to the source domain. Then we incorporate an adversarial module into a mean teacher framework to drive the feature spaces of these two subsets indistinguishable. Extensive experiments on multiple cross-domain object detection datasets demonstrate that our proposed method consistently outperforms the compared SFOD methods. Our implementation is available at https://github.com/ChuQiaosong

On TCR Binding Predictors Failing to Generalize to Unseen Peptides

On TCR Binding Predictors Failing to Generalize to Unseen Peptides Several recent studies investigate TCR-peptide/-pMHC binding prediction using machine learning or deep learning approaches. Many of these methods achieve impressive results on test sets, which include peptide sequences that are also included in the training set. In this work, we investigate how state of the-art deep learning models for TCR-peptide/-pMHC binding prediction generalize to unseen peptides. We create a dataset including positive samples from IEDB, VDJdb, McPAS-TCR, and the MIRA set, as well as negative samples from both randomization and 10X Genomics assays. We name this collection of samples TChard. We propose the hard split, a simple heuristic for training/test split, which ensures that test samples exclusively present peptides that do not belong to the training set. We investigate the effect of different training/test splitting techniques on the models’ test performance, as well as the effect of training and testing the models using mismatched negative samples generated randomly, in addition to the negative samples derived from assays. Our results show that modern deep learning methods fail to generalize to unseen peptides. We provide an explanation why this happens and verify our hypothesis on the TChard dataset. We then conclude that robust prediction of TCR recognition is still far for being solved.

Attentive Variational Information Bottleneck for TCR–peptide interaction prediction

Attentive Variational Information Bottleneck for TCR–peptide interaction prediction MotivationWe present a multi-sequence generalization of Variational Information Bottleneck and call the resulting model Attentive Variational Information Bottleneck (AVIB). Our AVIB model leverages multi-head self-attention to implicitly approximate a posterior distribution over latent encodings conditioned on multiple input sequences. We apply AVIB to a fundamental immuno-oncology problem: predicting the interactions between T-cell receptors (TCRs) and peptides.ResultsExperimental results on various datasets show that AVIB significantly outperforms state-of-the-art methods for TCR–peptide interaction prediction. Additionally, we show that the latent posterior distribution learned by AVIB is particularly effective for the unsupervised detection of out-of-distribution amino acid sequences.

Unsupervised Anomaly Detection with Self-Training and Knowledge Distillation

Unsupervised Anomaly Detection with Self-Training and Knowledge Distillation Anomaly Detection (AD) aims to find defective patterns or abnormal samples among data, and has been a hot research topic due to various real-world applications. While various AD methods have been proposed, most of them assume the availability of a clean (anomaly-free) training set, which however may be hard to guarantee in many real-world industry applications. This motivates us to investigate Unsupervised Anomaly Detection (UAD) in which the training set includes both normal and abnormal samples. In this paper, we address the UAD problem by proposing a Self-Training and Knowledge Distillation (STKD) model. STKD combats anomalies in the training set by iteratively alternating between excluding samples of high anomaly probabilities and training the model with the purified training set. Despite that the model is trained with a cleaner training set, the inevitably existing anomalies may still cause negative impact. STKD alleviates this by regularizing the model to respond similarly to a teacher model which has not been trained with noisy data. Experiments show that STKD consistently produces more robust performance with different levels of anomalies.