Probabilistic Shaping is a technique used in digital communication systems to optimize the transmission of information over a communication channel. The goal of probabilistic shaping is to improve the reliability and efficiency of data transmission by adjusting the probability distribution of the transmitted symbols.

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First Field Trial of Distributed Fiber Optical Sensing and High-Speed Communication Over an Operational Telecom Network

First Field Trial of Distributed Fiber Optical Sensing and High-Speed Communication Over an Operational Telecom Network To the best of our knowledge, we present the first field trial of distributed fiber optical sensing (DFOS) and high-speed communication, comprising a coexisting system, over an operation telecom network. Using probabilistic-shaped (PS) DP-144QAM, a 36.8 Tb/s with an 8.28-b/s/Hz spectral efficiency (SE) (48-Gbaud channels, 50-GHz channel spacing) was achieved. Employing DFOS technology, road traffic, i.e., vehicle speed and vehicle density, were sensed with 98.5% and 94.5% accuracies, respectively, as compared to video analytics. Additionally, road conditions, i.e., roughness level was sensed with >85% accuracy via a machine learning based classifier.

Spectrally-Efficient 200G Probabilistically-Shaped 16QAM over 9000km Straight Line Transmission with Flexible Multiplexing Scheme

Spectrally-Efficient 200G Probabilistically-Shaped 16QAM over 9000km Straight Line Transmission with Flexible Multiplexing Scheme Flexible wavelength-multiplexing technique in backbone submarine networks has been deployed to accommodate the trend of variable-rate modulation formats. In this paper, we propose a new design of flexible-rate transponders in the scenario of flexible multiplexing scheme to achieve near-Shannon performance. Probabilistic-shaped (PS) M-QAM is capable of adjusting the bit rate at very finer granularity by adapting the entropy of the distribution matcher. Instead of delivering variable bit rates at the fixed baud rate, various baud rates of 200Gb/s PS-16QAM is demonstrated to fit into the flexible grid multiple 3.125GHz bandwidth. This flexible baud rate saves the limited optical bandwidth assigned by the flexible multiplexing scheme to improve bandwidth utilization. The 200G PS-16QAM signals are experimentally demonstrated over 9000km straight-line testbed to achieve 3.05b/s/Hz~5.33 b/s/Hz spectral efficiency (SE) with up to 4dB Q margin. In addition, the high baud rate signals are used for lower SE while low baud rate signals are targeting at high SE transmission to reduce the implementation penalty.

Neuron-Network-based Nonlinearity Compensation Algorithm

Neuron-Network-based Nonlinearity Compensation Algorithm A simplified, system-agnostic NLC algorithm based on a neuron network is proposed to pre-distort symbols at transmitter side to demonstrate ~0.6dB Q improvement after 2800km SMF transmission using 32Gbaud DP-16QAM.

Spectrally Efficient Submarine Transmission with Flexible WME

Spectrally Efficient Submarine Transmission with Flexible WME By adjusting single shaping factor in the distribution matcher, probabilistic-shaped M-QAM is reviewed to provide both flex-rate and near-Shannon performance at the given flex-grid bandwidth and filling ratio.

Evolution from 8QAM live traffic to PCS 64-QAM with Neural-Network Based Nonlinearity Compensation on 11000 km Open Subsea Cable

Evolution from 8QAM live traffic to PCS 64-QAM with Neural-Network Based Nonlinearity Compensation on 11000 km Open Subsea Cable We report on the evolution of the longest segment of FASTER cable at 11,017 km, with 8QAM transponders at 4b/s/Hz spectral efficiency (SE) in service. With offline testing, 6 b/s/Hz is further demonstrated using probabilistically shaped 64QAM, and a novel, low complexity nonlinearity compensation technique based on generating a black-box model of the transmission by training an artificial neural network, resulting in the largest SE-distance product 66,102 b/s/Hz-km over live-traffic carrying cable.

Flex-Rate Transmission using Hybrid Probabilistic and Geometric Shaped 32QAM

Flex-Rate Transmission using Hybrid Probabilistic and Geometric Shaped 32QAM A novel algorithm to design geometric shaped 32QAM to work with probabilistic shaping is proposed to approach the Shannon limit within ~0.2 dB in SNR. The experimental results show ~0.2 dB SNR advantage over 64Gbaud PAS-64QAM, and flex-rate transmission demonstrates > 500 km reach improvement over 32QAM.

Universal Hybrid Probabilistic-geometric Shaping Based on Two-dimensional Distribution Matchers

Universal Hybrid Probabilistic-geometric Shaping Based on Two-dimensional Distribution Matchers We propose universal distribution matchers applicable to any two-dimensional signal constellation. We experimentally demonstrate that the performance of 32-ary QAM, based on hybrid probabilistic-geometric shaping, is superior to probabilistically shaped 32QAM and regular 32QAM.

Constellation Design with Geometric and Probabilistic Shaping

Constellation Design with Geometric and Probabilistic Shaping A systematic study, including theory, simulation and experiments, is carried out to review the generalized pairwise optimization algorithm for designing optimized constellation. In order to verify its effectiveness, the algorithm is applied in three testing cases: 2-dimensional 8 quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM), 4-dimensional set-partitioning QAM, and probabilistic-shaped (PS) 32QAM. The results suggest that geometric shaping can work together with PS to further bridge the gap toward the Shannon limit.

Design and Comparison of Advanced Modulation Formats Based on Generalized Mutual Information

Design and Comparison of Advanced Modulation Formats Based on Generalized Mutual Information Generalized mutual information (GMI) has been comprehensively studied in multidimensional constellation and probabilistic-shaped (PS) constellation together with different forward error correction (FEC) coding schemes. The simulation results confirm that GMI is an efficient and accurate tool to compare their post-FEC performance. In particular for uniformly geometric-shaped constellation, the pre-FEC Q-factor is highly correlated with GMI though the correlation is reduced at lower FEC coding rate. Furthermore, GMI can be used to design optimized constellation together with generalized pairwise optimization algorithm to mitigate the GMI loss in non-Gray-mapped constellation. The GMI-optimized 32QAM (opt32) shows ~0.5 dB signal-to-noise ratio improvement between 3 and 4 b/s GMI in both simulated and experimental results. Optimized two-dimensional 8 QAM is also designed to show the consistent GMI improvement over multi-dimensional 8 QAM-equivalent formats. In simulations, PS-64 QAM outperforms opt32 when a long sequence block is used in the distribution matcher.