Deep Federated Anomaly Detection for Multivariate Time Series Data Although many anomaly detection approaches have been developed for multivariate time series data, limited effort has been made in federated settings in which multivariate time series data are heterogeneously distributed among different edge devices while data sharing is prohibited. In this paper, we investigate the problem of federated unsupervised anomaly detection and present a Federated Exemplar-based Deep Neural Network (Fed-ExDNN) to conduct anomaly detection for multivariate time series data on different edge devices. Specifically, we first design an Exemplar-based Deep Neural network (ExDNN) for learning local time series representations based on their compatibility with an exemplar module which consists of hidden parameters learned to capture varieties of normal patterns on each edge device. Next, a constrained clustering mechanism (FedCC) is employed on the centralized server to align and aggregate the parameters of different local exemplar modules to obtain a unified global exemplar module. Finally, the global exemplar module is deployed together with a shared feature encoder to each edge device, and anomaly detection is conducted by examining the compatibility of testing data to the exemplar module. Fed-ExDNN captures local normal time series patterns with ExDNN and aggregates these patterns by FedCC, and thus can handle the heterogeneous data distributed over different edge devices simultaneously. Thoroughly empirical studies on six public datasets show that ExDNN and Fed-ExDNN can outperform state-of-the-art anomaly detection algorithms and federated learning techniques, respectively.
Representation Learning, also known as feature learning, is a machine learning technique that focuses on automatically discovering and extracting meaningful features or representations from raw data. The goal is to transform data into a more compact and informative format that can be used for various downstream tasks, such as classification, regression, clustering, and visualization. Representation learning methods can be unsupervised, supervised, or self-supervised and are widely used in computer vision, natural language processing, and other domains.
Superclass-Conditional Gaussian Mixture Model for Coarse-To-Fine Few-Shot Learning Learning fine-grained embeddings is essential for extending the generalizability of models pre-trained on “coarse” labels (e.g., animals). It is crucial to fields for which fine-grained labeling (e.g., breeds of animals) is expensive, but fine-grained prediction is desirable, such as medicine. The dilemma necessitates adaptation of a “coarsely” pre-trained model to new tasks with a few “finer-grained” training labels. However, coarsely supervised pre-training tends to suppress intra-class variation, which is vital for cross-granularity adaptation. In this paper, we develop a training framework underlain by a novel superclass-conditional Gaussian mixture model (SCGM). SCGM imitates the generative process of samples from hierarchies of classes through latent variable modeling of the fine-grained subclasses. The framework is agnostic to the encoders and only adds a few distribution related parameters, thus is efficient, and flexible to different domains. The model parameters are learned end-to-end by maximum-likelihood estimation via a principled Expectation-Maximization algorithm. Extensive experiments on benchmark datasets and a real-life medical dataset indicate the effectiveness of our method.
Learning Transferable Reward for Query Object Localization with Policy Adaptation We propose a reinforcement learning based approach to query object localization, for which an agent is trained to localize objects of interest specified by a small exemplary set. We learn a transferable reward signal formulated using the exemplary set by ordinal metric learning. Our proposed method enables test-time policy adaptation to new environments where the reward signals are not readily available and outperforms fine-tuning approaches that are limited to annotated images. In addition, the transferable reward allows repurposing the trained agent from one specific class to another class. Experiments on corrupted MNIST, CU-Birds, and COCO datasets demonstrate the effectiveness of our approach.
Provable Adaptation Across Multiway Domains via Representation Learning This paper studies zero-shot domain adaptation where each domain is indexed on a multi-dimensional array, and we only have data from a small subset of domains. Our goal is to produce predictors that perform well on unseen domains. We propose a model which consists of a domain-invariant latent representation layer and a domain-specific linear prediction layer with a low-rank tensor structure. Theoretically, we present explicit sample complexity bounds to characterize the prediction error on unseen domains in terms of the number of domains with training data and the number of data per domain. To our knowledge, this is the first finite-sample guarantee for zero-shot domain adaptation. In addition, we provide experiments on two-way MNIST and four-way fiber sensing datasets to demonstrate the effectiveness of our proposed model.
Asymmetrically Hierarchical Networks with Attentive Interactions for Interpretable Review-based Recommendation Recently, recommender systems have been able to emit substantially improved recommendations by leveraging user-provided reviews. Existing methods typically merge all reviews of a given user (item) into a long document, and then process user and item documents in the same manner. In practice, however, these two sets of reviews are notably different: users’ reviews reflect a variety of items that they have bought and are hence very heterogeneous in their topics, while an item’s reviews pertain only to that single item and are thus topically homogeneous. In this work, we develop a novel neural network model that properly accounts for this important difference by means of asymmetric attentive modules. The user module learns to attend to only those signals that are relevant with respect to the target item, whereas the item module learns to extract the most salient contents with regard to properties of the item. Our multi-hierarchical paradigm accounts for the fact that neither are all reviews equally useful, nor are all sentences within each review equally pertinent. Extensive experimental results on a variety of real datasets demonstrate the effectiveness of our method.
Attentional Heterogeneous Graph Neural Network:Application to Program Reidentfication Program or process is an integral part of almost every IT/OT system. Can we trust the identity/ID (e.g., executable name) of the program? To avoid detection, malware may disguise itself using the ID of a legitimate program, and a system tool (e.g., PowerShell) used by the attackers may have the fake ID of another common software, which is less sensitive. However, existing intrusion detection techniques often overlook this critical program reidentification problem (i.e., checking the program’s identity). In this paper, we propose an attentional heterogeneous graph neural network model (DeepHGNN) to verify the program’s identity based on its system behaviors. The key idea is to leverage the representation learning of the heterogeneous program behavior graph to guide the reidentification process. We formulate the program reidentification as a graph classification problem and develop an effective attentional heterogeneous graph embedding algorithm to solve it. Extensive experiments using real-world enterprise monitoring data and real attacks demonstrate the effectiveness of DeepHGNN across multiple popular metrics and the robustness to the normal dynamic changes like program version upgrades.
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