Shahram Shahsavari works at University of Waterloo, Ontario.

Posts

Opportunistic Temporal Fair Mode Selection and User Scheduling in Full-Duplex Systems

Opportunistic Temporal Fair Mode Selection and User Scheduling in Full-Duplex Systems In-band full-duplex (FD) communication has emerged as one of the promising techniques to improve data rates in next generation wireless systems. Typical FD scenarios considered in the literature assume FD base stations (BSs) and half-duplex (HD) users activated either in uplink (UL) or downlink (DL), where inter-user interference (IUI) is treated as noise at the DL user. This paper considers more general FD scenarios where an arbitrary fraction of the users are capable of FD and/or they can perform successive interference cancellation (SIC) to mitigate IUI. Consequently, one user can be activated in either UL or DL (HD-UL and HD-DL modes), or simultaneously in both directions requiring self-interference mitigation (SIM) at that user (FD-SIM mode). Furthermore, two users can be scheduled, one in UL and the other in DL (both operating in HD), where the DL user can treat IUI as noise (FD-IN mode) or perform SIC to mitigate IUI (FD-SIC mode). This paper studies opportunistic mode selection and user scheduling under long-term and short-term temporal fairness in single-carrier and multi-carrier (OFDM) FD systems, with the goal of maximizing system utility (e.g. sum-rate). First, the feasible region of temporal demands is characterized for both long-term and short-term fairness. Subsequently, optimal temporal fair schedulers as well as practical low-complexity online algorithms are devised. Simulation results demonstrate that using SIC to mitigate IUI as well as having FD capability at users can improve FD throughput gains significantly especially, when user distribution is concentrated around a few hotspots.

On Single-User Interactive Beam Alignment in Millimeter Wave Systems: Impact of Feedback Delay

On Single-User Interactive Beam Alignment in Millimeter Wave Systems: Impact of Feedback Delay Narrow beams are key to wireless communications in millimeter wave frequency bands. Beam alignment (BA) allows the base station (BS) to adjust the direction and width of the beam used for communication. During BA, the BS transmits a number of scanning beams covering different angular regions. The goal is to minimize the expected width of the uncertainty region (UR) that includes the angle of departure of the user. Conventionally, in interactive BA, it is assumed that the feedback corresponding to each scanning packet is received prior to transmission of the next one. However, in practice, the feedback delay could be larger because of propagation or system constraints. This paper investigates BA strategies that operate under arbitrary fixed feedback delays. This problem is analyzed through a source coding perspective where the feedback sequences are viewed as source codewords. It is shown that these codewords form a codebook with a particular characteristic which is used to define a new class of codes called d—unimodal codes. By analyzing the properties of these codes, a lower bound on the minimum achievable expected beamwidth is provided. The results reveal potential performance improvements in terms of the BA duration it takes to achieve a fixed expected width of the UR over the state-of-the-art BA methods which do not consider the effect of delay.

On Single User Interactive Beam Alignment in Millimeter Wave Systems: Impact of feedback delay

On Single User Interactive Beam Alignment in Millimeter Wave Systems: Impact of feedback delay Narrow beams are key to wireless communications in millimeter wave frequency bands. Beam alignment (BA) allows the base station (BS) to adjust the direction and width of the beam used for communication. During BA, the BS transmits a number of scanning beams covering different angular regions. The goal is to minimize the expected width of the uncertainty region (UR) that includes the angle of departure of the user. Conventionally, in interactive BA, it is assumed that the feedback corresponding to each scanning packet is received prior to transmission of the next one. However, in practice, the feedback delay could be larger because of propagation or system constraints. This paper investigates BA strategies that operate under arbitrary fixed feedback delays. This problem is analyzed through a source coding prospective where the feedback sequences are viewed as source codewords. It is shown that these codewords form a codebook with a particular characteristic which is used to define a new class of codes called d unimodal codes. By analyzing the properties of these codes, a lower bound on the minimum achievable expected beamwidth is provided. The results reveal potential performance improvements in terms of the BA duration it takes to achieve a fixed expected width of the UR over the state of the art BA methods which do not consider the effect of delay.

Multi-user Beam Alignment for Millimeter Wave Systems in Multi-path Environments

Multi-user Beam Alignment for Millimeter Wave Systems in Multi-path Environments Directional transmission patterns (a.k.a. narrow beams) are the key to wireless communications in millimeter wave (mmWave) frequency bands which suffer from high path loss, severe shadowing, and intense blockage. In addition, the propagation channel in mmWave frequencies incorporates only a few number of spatial clusters requiring a procedure, called beam alignment (BA), to align the corresponding narrow beams with the angle of departure (AoD) of the channel clusters. In addition, BA enables beamforming gains to compensate path loss and shadowing or diversity gains to combat the blockage. Most of the prior analytical studies have considered strong simplifying assumptions such as i) having a single-user scenario and ii) having a single dominant path channel model for theoretical tractability. In this study, we relax such constraints and provide a theoretical framework to design and analyze optimized multiuser BA schemes in multi-path environments. Such BA schemes not only reduce the BA overhead and provide beamforming gains to compensate path loss and shadowing, but also provide diversity gains to mitigate the impact of blockage in practical mmWave systems.

On Optimal Multi-user Beam Alignment in Millimeter Wave Wireless Systems

On Optimal Multi-user Beam Alignment in Millimeter Wave Wireless Systems Directional transmission patterns (a.k.a. narrow beams) are the key to wireless communications in millimeter wave (mmWave) frequency bands which suffer from high path loss and severe shadowing. In addition, the propagation channel in mmWave frequencies incorporates only a few number of spatial clusters requiring a procedure to align the corresponding narrow beams with the angle of departure (AoD) of the channel clusters. The objective of this procedure, called beam alignment (BA) is to increase the beamforming gain for subsequent data communication. Several prior studies consider optimizing BA procedure to achieve various objectives such as reducing the BA overhead, increasing throughput, and reducing power consumption. While these studies mostly provide optimized BA schemes for scenarios with a single active user, there are often multiple active users in practical networks. Consequently, it is more efficient in terms of BA overhead and delay to design multi-user BA schemes which can perform beam management for multiple users collectively. This paper considers a class of multi-user BA schemes where the base station performs a one shot scan of the angular domain to simultaneously localize multiple users. The objective is to minimize the average of expected width of remaining uncertainty regions (UR) on the AoDs after receiving users’ feedbacks. Fundamental bounds on the optimal performance are analyzed using information theoretic tools. Furthermore, a BA optimization problem is formulated and a practical BA scheme, which provides significant gains compared to the beam sweeping used in 5G standard, is proposed.

On Optimal Multi-User Beam Alignment in Millimeter Wave Wireless Systems

On Optimal Multi user Beam Alignment in Millimeter Wave Wireless Systems Directional transmission patterns (a.k.a. narrow beams) are the key to wireless communications in millimeter wave (mmWave) frequency bands which suffer from high path loss and severe shadowing. In addition, the propagation channel in mmWave frequencies incorporates only a few number of spatial clusters requiring a procedure to align the corresponding narrow beams with the angle of departure (AoD) of the channel clusters. The objective of this procedure, called beam alignment (BA) is to increase the beamforming gain for subsequent data communication. Several prior studies consider optimizing BA procedure to achieve various objectives such as reducing the BA overhead, increasing throughput, and reducing power consumption. While these studies mostly provide optimized BA schemes for scenarios with a single active user, there are often multiple active users in practical networks. Consequently, it is more efficient in terms of BA overhead and delay to design multi user BA schemes which can perform beam management for multiple users collectively. This paper considers a class of multi user BA schemes where the base station performs a one shot scan of the angular domain to simultaneously localize multiple users. The objective is to minimize the average of expected width of remaining uncertainty regions (UR) on the AoDs after receiving users’ feedbacks. Fundamental bounds on the optimal performance are analyzed using information theoretic tools. Furthermore, a beam design optimization problem is formulated and a practical BA scheme, which provides significant gains compared to the beam sweeping used in 5G standard is proposed.

Beam Training Optimization in Millimeter-wave Systems under Beamwidth, Modulation and Coding Constraints

Beam Training Optimization in Millimeter-wave Systems under Beamwidth, Modulation and Coding Constraints Millimeter-wave (mmWave) bands have the potential to enable significantly high data rates in wireless systems. In order to overcome intense path loss and severe shadowing in these bands, it is essential to employ directional beams for data transmission. Furthermore, it is known that the mmWave channel incorporates a few number of spatial clusters necessitating additional time to align the corresponding beams with the channel prior to data transmission. This procedure is known as beam training (BT). While a longer BT leads to more directional beams (equivalently higher beamforming gains), there is less time for data communication. In this paper, this trade-off is investigated for a time slotted system under practical constraints such as finite beamwidth resolution and discrete modulation and coding schemes. At each BT time slot, the access point (AP) scans a region of uncertainty by transmitting a probing packet and refines angle of arrival (AoA) estimate based on user equipment (UE) feedback. Given a total number time slots, the objective is to find the optimum allocation between BT and data transmission and a feasible beamwidth for the estimation of AoA at each BT time slot such that the expected throughput is maximized. It is shown that the problem satisfies the optimal substructure property enabling the use of a backward dynamic programming approach to find the optimal solution with polynomial computational complexity. Simulation results reveal that in practical scenarios, the proposed approach outperforms existing techniques such as exhaustive and bisection search.

Opportunistic Temporal Fair Mode Selection and User Scheduling for Full-duplex Systems

Opportunistic Temporal Fair Mode Selection and User Scheduling for Full-duplex Systems In-band full-duplex (FD) communications – enabled by recent advances in antenna and RF circuit design – has emerged as one of the promising techniques to improve data rates in wireless systems. One of the major roadblocks in enabling high data rates in FD systems is the inter-user interference (IUI) due to activating pairs of uplink and downlink users at the same time-frequency resource block. Opportunistic user scheduling has been proposed as a means to manage IUI and fully exploit the multiplexing gains in FD systems. In this paper, scheduling under long-term and short-term temporal fairness for single-cell FD wireless networks is considered. Temporal fair scheduling is of interest in delay-sensitive applications, and leads to predictable latency and power consumption. The feasible region of user temporal demand vectors is derived, and a scheduling strategy maximizing the system utility while satisfying long-term temporal fairness is proposed. Furthermore, a short-term temporal fair scheduling strategy is devised which satisfies user temporal demands over a finite window-length. It is shown that the strategy achieves optimal average system utility as the window-length is increased asymptotically. Subsequently, practical construction algorithms for long-term and short-term temporal fair scheduling are introduced. Simulations are provided to verify the derivations and investigate the multiplexing gains. It is observed that using successive interference cancellation at downlink users improves FD gains significantly in the presence of strong IUI.

Robust Beam Tracking and Data Communication in Millimeter Wave Mobile Networks

Robust Beam Tracking and Data Communication in Millimeter Wave Mobile Networks Millimeter-wave (mmWave) bands have shown the potential to enable high data rates for next generation mobile networks. In order to cope with high path loss and severe shadowing in mmWave frequencies, it is essential to employ massive antenna arrays and generate narrow transmission patterns (beams). When narrow beams are used, mobile user tracking is indispensable for reliable communication. In this paper, a joint beam tracking and data communication strategy is proposed in which, the base station (BS) increases the beamwidth during data transmission to compensate for location uncertainty caused by user mobility. In order to evade low beamforming gains due to widening the beam pattern, a probing scheme is proposed in which the BS transmits a number of probing packets to refine the estimation of angle of arrival based on the user feedback, which enables reliable data transmission through narrow beams again. In the proposed scheme, time is divided into similar frames each consisting of a probing phase followed by a data communication phase. A steady state analysis is provided based on which, the duration of data transmission and probing phases are optimized. Furthermore, the results are generalized to consider practical constraints such as minimum feasible beamwidth. Simulation results reveal that the proposed method outperforms well-known approaches such as optimized beam sweeping.