A Submarine Cable refers to a cable laid on the ocean floor to facilitate telecommunication and data transmission between continents or islands. These cables are a critical part of global network infrastructure, enabling high-capacity and high-speed communication between different regions of the world. Major companies, consortiums, and telecommunications providers invest in the construction and maintenance of submarine cables to support the growing demand for global data connectivity. These cables play a crucial role in enabling the interconnected and interdependent nature of the modern digital world.


Improvement of Resilience of Submarine Networks Based on Fiber Sensing

Simultaneous phase and polarization sensing with span length resolution using the supervisory path is demonstrated. It is shown that by measuring polarization rotation matrix of the return paths, instead of monitoring only the state of polarization, location of the polarization disturbance can be determined even for large polarization rotations. By using the polarization rotation matrices, the phase and polarization disturbances are successfully decoupled. How the existing supervisory system and sensing can coexist in new SDM cables that utilizes pump sharing is discussed.

Polarization Sensing Using Polarization Rotation Matrix Eigenvalue Method

Polarization-based, multi-span sensing over a link with reflection-back circuits is demonstrated experimentally. By measuring rotation matrices instead of just monitoring polarization, a 35 dB extinction in localization is achieved regardless of the disturbance magnitude.