Contextual Grounding of Natural Language Phrases in Images In this paper, we introduce a contextual grounding approach that captures the context in corresponding text entities and image regions to improve the grounding accuracy. Specifically, the proposed architecture accepts pre-trained text token embeddings and image object features from an off-the-shelf object detector as input. Additional encoding to capture the positional and spatial information can be added to enhance the feature quality. There are separate text and image branches facilitating respective architectural refinements for different modalities. The text branch is pre-trained on a large-scale masked language modeling task while the image branch is trained from scratch. Next, the model learns the contextual representations of the text tokens and image objects through layers of high-order interaction respectively. The final grounding head ranks the correspondence between the textual and visual representations through cross-modal interaction. In the evaluation, we show that our model achieves the state-of-the-art grounding accuracy of 71.36% over the Flickr30K Entities dataset. No additional pre-training is necessary to deliver competitive results compared with related work that often requires task-agnostic and task-specific pre-training on cross-modal datasets. The implementation is publicly available at https://gitlab.com/necla-ml/Grounding
On Novel Object Recognition: A Unified Framework for Discriminability and Adaptability The rich and accessible labeled data fueled the revolutionary successes of deep learning in object recognition. However, recognizing objects of novel classes with limited supervision information provided, i.e., Novel Object Recognition (NOR), remains a challenging task. We identify in this paper two key factors for the success of NOR that previous approaches fail to simultaneously guarantee. The first is producing discriminative feature representations for images of novel classes, and the second is generating a flexible classifier readily adapted to novel classes provided with limited supervision signals. To secure both key factors, we propose a framework which decouples a deep classification model into a feature extraction module and a classification module. We learn the former to ensure feature discriminability with a standard multi-class classification task by fully utilizing the competing information among all classes within a training set, and learn the latter to secure adaptability by training a meta-learner network which generates classifier weights whenever provided with minimal supervision information of target classes. Extensive experiments on common benchmark datasets in the settings of both zero-shot and few-shot learning demonstrate our method achieves state-of-the-art performance.
Rethinking Zero-Shot Learning: A Conditional Visual Classification Perspective Zero-shot learning (ZSL) aims to recognize instances of unseen classes solely based on the semantic descriptions of the classes. Existing algorithms usually formulate it as a semantic-visual correspondence problem, by learning mappings from one feature space to the other. Despite being reasonable, previous approaches essentially discard the highly precious discriminative power of visual features in an implicit way, and thus produce undesirable results. We instead reformulate ZSL as a conditioned visual classification problem, i.e., classifying visual features based on the classifiers learned from the semantic descriptions. With this reformulation, we develop algorithms targeting various ZSL settings: For the conventional setting, we propose to train a deep neural network that directly generates visual feature classifiers from the semantic attributes with an episode-based training scheme; For the generalized setting, we concatenate the learned highly discriminative classifiers for seen classes and the generated classifiers for unseen classes to classify visual features of all classes; For the transductive setting, we exploit unlabeled data to effectively calibrate the classifier generator using a novel learning-without-forgetting self-training mechanism and guide the process by a robust generalized cross-entropy loss. Extensive experiments show that our proposed algorithms significantly outperform state-of-the-art methods by large margins on most benchmark datasets in all the ZSL settings.
Conditional GAN with Discriminative Filter Generation for Text-to-Video Synthesis Developing conditional generative models for text-to-video synthesis is an extremely challenging yet an important topic of research in machine learning. In this work, we address this problem by introducing Text-Filter conditioning Generative Adversarial Network (TFGAN), a conditional GAN model with a novel multi-scale text-conditioning scheme that improves text-video associations. By combining the proposed conditioning scheme with a deep GAN architecture, TFGAN generates high quality videos from text on challenging real-world video datasets. In addition, we construct a synthetic dataset of text-conditioned moving shapes to systematically evaluate our conditioning scheme. Extensive experiments demonstrate that TFGAN significantly outperforms existing approaches, and can also generate videos of novel categories not seen during training.
Learning K-way D-dimensional Discrete Embedding for Hierarchical Data Visualization and Retrieval Traditional embedding approaches associate a real-valued embedding vector with each symbol or data point, which is equivalent to applying a linear transformation to “one-hot” encoding of discrete symbols or data objects. Despite simplicity, these methods generate storage-inefficient representations and fail to effectively encode the internal semantic structure of data, especially when the number of symbols or data points and the dimensionality of the real-valued embedding vectors are large. In this paper, we propose a regularized autoencoder framework to learn compact Hierarchical K-way D-dimensional (HKD) discrete embedding of symbols or data points, aiming at capturing essential semantic structures of data. Experimental results on synthetic and real-world datasets show that our proposed HKD embedding can effectively reveal the semantic structure of data via hierarchical data visualization and greatly reduce the search space of nearest neighbor retrieval while preserving high accuracy.
Tripping through time: Efficient Temporal Localization of Activities in Videos Localizing moments in untrimmed videos using language queries is a new task that requires ability to accurately ground language into video. Existing approaches process the video, often more than once to localize the activities and are inefficient. In this paper, we present TripNet, an end-to-end system which uses a gated attention architecture to model fine grained textual and visual representations in order to align text and video content. Furthermore, TripNet uses reinforcement learning to efficiently localize relevant activity clips in long videos, by learning how to skip around the video saving feature extraction and processing time. In our evaluation over Charades-STA and ActivityNet Captions dataset, we find that TripNet achieves high accuracy and only processes 32-41% of the entire video.
A Deep Spatio-Temporal Fuzzy Neural Network for Passenger Demand Prediction In spite of its importance, passenger demand prediction is a highly challenging problem, because the demand is simultaneously influenced by the complex interactions among many spatial and temporal factors and other external factors such as weather. To address this problem, we propose a Spatio-TEmporal Fuzzy neural Network (STEF-Net) to accurately predict passenger demands incorporating the complex interactions of all known important factors. We design an end-to-end learning framework with different neural networks modeling different factors. Specifically, we propose to capture spatio-temporal feature interactions via a convolutional long short-term memory network and model external factors via a fuzzy neural network that handles data uncertainty significantly better than deterministic methods. To keep the temporal relations when fusing two networks and emphasize discriminative spatio-temporal feature interactions, we employ a novel feature fusion method with a convolution operation and an attention layer. As far as we know, our work is the first to fuse a deep recurrent neural network and a fuzzy neural network to model complex spatial-temporal feature interactions with additional uncertain input features for predictive learning. Experiments on a large-scale real-world dataset show that our model achieves more than 10% improvement over the state-of-the-art approaches.
Visual Entailment: A Novel Task for Fine-Grained Image Understanding Existing visual reasoning datasets such as Visual Question Answering (VQA), often suffer from biases conditioned on the question, image or answer distributions. The recently proposed CLEVR dataset addresses these limitations and requires fine-grained reasoning but the dataset is synthetic and consists of similar objects and sentence structures across the dataset. In this paper, we introduce a new inference task, Visual Entailment (VE) – consisting of image-sentence pairs whereby a premise is defined by an image, rather than a natural language sentence as in traditional Textual Entailment tasks. The goal of a trained VE model is to predict whether the image semantically entails the text. To realize this task, we build a dataset SNLI-VE based on the Stanford Natural Language Inference corpus and Flickr30k dataset. We evaluate various existing VQA baselines and build a model called Explainable Visual Entailment (EVE) system to address the VE task. EVE achieves up to 71% accuracy and outperforms several other state-of-the-art VQA based models. Finally, we demonstrate the explainability of EVE through cross-modal attention visualizations.
Visual Entailment Task for Visually-Grounded Language Learning We introduce a new inference task – Visual Entailment (VE) – which differs from traditional Textual Entailment (TE) tasks whereby a premise is defined by an image, rather than a natural language sentence as in TE tasks. A novel dataset SNLI-VE is proposed for VE tasks based on the Stanford Natural Language Inference corpus and Flickr30K. We introduce a differentiable architecture called the Explainable Visual Entailment model (EVE) to tackle the VE problem. EVE and several other state-of-the-art visual question answering (VQA) based models are evaluated on the SNLI-VE dataset, facilitating grounded language understanding and providing insights on how modern VQA based models perform.
Optimal Transport Classifier: Defending Against Adversarial Attacks by Regularized Deep Embedding Recent studies have demonstrated the vulnerability of deep convolutional neural networks against adversarial examples. Inspired by the observation that the intrinsic dimension of image data is much smaller than its pixel space dimension and the vulnerability of neural networks grows with the input dimension, we propose to embed high-dimensional input images into a low-dimensional space to perform classification. However, arbitrarily projecting the input images to a low-dimensional space without regularization will not improve the robustness of deep neural networks. Leveraging optimal transport theory, we propose a new framework, Optimal Transport Classifier (OT-Classifier), and derive an objective that minimizes the discrepancy between the distribution of the true label and the distribution of the OT-Classifier output. Experimental results on several benchmark datasets show that, our proposed framework achieves state-of-the-art performance against strong adversarial attack methods.